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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations

FinCEN Offers Red Flags Guidance On Human Trafficking And Smuggling


Consumer Finance

On September 11, in FIN-2014-A008, FinCEN advised financial institutions on how to detect and report suspicious financial activity that may be related to human smuggling and/or trafficking. The advisory describes the differences between human smuggling and trafficking, and describes how each is conducted. FinCEN suggests that financial institutions consider evaluating indicators of potential human smuggling or trafficking activity in combination with other red flags and factors, such as expected transaction activity, before making determinations of suspiciousness. Additionally, FinCEN states that in making a determination of suspiciousness, financial institutions are encouraged to use previous FinCEN advisories and guidance as a reference when evaluating potential suspicious activity, including a May 2014 advisory on the use and structure of funnel accounts. The advisory also attached two appendices that provide examples of human smuggling and trafficking red flags. FinCEN advises institutions that in evaluating whether certain transactions are suspicious and/or related to human smuggling or trafficking, they should share information with one another as appropriate, under Section 314(b) of the USA PATRIOT Act. If a financial institution knows, suspects, or has reason to suspect that a transaction has no business or apparent lawful purpose or is not the sort in which the particular customer would normally be expected to engage, and the financial institution knows of no reasonable explanation for the transaction after examining the available facts, including the background and possible purpose of the transaction, the financial institution should file a SAR with the terms “Advisory Human Smuggling” and/or Advisory Human Trafficking” in the narrative and the Suspicious Activity Information. The narrative should also include an explanation of why the institution knows, suspects, or has reason to suspect that the activity is suspicious. The advisory further notes that a potential victim of human smuggling or trafficking should not be reported as the subject of the SAR, but rather to provide all available information on the victim in the narrative portion of the SAR.