CFPB launches rulemaking on consumers’ rights to their data
On October 27, the CFPB released a 71-page outline of proposals and alternatives under consideration related to the Bureau’s Dodd-Frank Section 1033 rulemaking efforts. The outline describes proposals under consideration that “would specify rules requiring certain covered persons that are data providers to make consumer financial information available to a consumer directly and to those third parties the consumer authorizes to access such information on the consumer’s behalf, such as a data aggregator or data recipient (authorized third parties).” Emphasizing that “[c]lear data rights for consumers have the potential to give individuals more bargaining leverage,” the Bureau claimed that companies compiling vast amounts of personal data, including information about consumers’ use of financial products and services, are able to monopolize the use of this data, thereby blocking competition and stifling the development of competitors’ products and services.
Highlights from the outline include a series of discussion questions for small businesses and a list of topics, including:
- Data providers subject to the proposals under consideration. The proposals, if finalized, would impact data providers, including “depository and non-depository financial institutions that provide consumer funds-holding accounts or that otherwise meet the Regulation E definition of financial institution, as well as depository and non-depository institutions that provide credit cards or otherwise meet the Regulation Z definition of card issuer.” Notably, “a financial institution would be a covered provider if it issues an ‘access device’ (as the term is defined in Regulation E § 1005.2(a)(1)), such as a digital credential storage wallet, and provides EFT services, even if it does not hold consumer accounts.” Additionally, “a card issuer would be a covered data provider if it issues a ‘credit card’ (as the term is defined in Regulation Z § 1026.2(a)(15)(i)), such as by issuing digital credential storage wallets, even if it does not hold consumer credit accounts.” The outline also defines covered accounts and states the Bureau is considering potential exemptions for certain data providers.
- Recipients of information. To be considered an authorized third party under the proposals, a third party must: (i) provide an “authorization disclosure” informing consumers of key terms of access; (ii) obtain consumers’ informed, express consent to the key terms of access contained within the authorization disclosure; and (iii) certify to consumers that it will abide by certain obligations related to the collection, use, and retention of a consumer’s information. The Bureau is considering proposals that would address “a covered data provider’s obligation to make information available upon request directly to a consumer (direct access) and to authorized third parties (third-party access).”
- Types of information covered data providers would need to make available. The outline proposes six categories of information data providers would have to make available with respect to covered accounts, including (i) periodic statement information; (ii) information on certain types of prior transactions and deposits that have not-yet-settled; (iii) information regarding prior transactions not typically shown on periodic statements or online account portals; (iv) online banking transactions that have not yet occurred; (v) account identity information; and (vi) other information, such as consumer reports, fees, bonuses, discounts, incentives, and security breaches that exposed a consumer’s identity or financial information.
- Exceptions to the requirement to make information available. The outline provides four exceptions to the requirement for making information available: (i) confidential commercial information; (ii) information obtained to prevent fraud, money laundering, or other unlawful conduct; (iii) information that is required to be kept confidential; and (iv) information a “data provider cannot retrieve in the ordinary course of business.”
- How and when information would need to be made available. The outline states the Bureau is considering ways to define the methods and the circumstances in which a data provider would need to make information available with respect to both direct access and third-party access.
- Third party obligations. The Bureau is examining proposals to limit authorized third parties’ collection, use, and retention of consumer information to that which “is reasonably necessary to provide the product or service the consumer has requested.” This includes (i) limiting duration, frequency, and retention periods; (ii) providing consumers a simple way to revoke authorization; (iii) limiting a third party’s secondary use of consumer-authorized information; (iv) requiring third parties to implement data security standards and policies and procedures to ensure data accuracy and dispute resolution; and (v) requiring third parties to comply with certain disclosure obligations, including a mechanism for consumers to request information about the extent and purposes of a third party’s access to their data.
- Record retention obligations. Proposals under consideration would establish requirements for data providers and third parties to demonstrate compliance with their obligations under the rule.
- Implementation period. The Bureau is seeking feedback on time frames to ensure consumers are able to benefit from a final rule, while also considering implementation factors for data providers and third parties.
An appendix to the highlights provides examples of ways the proposals would apply to hypothetical transactions involving consumer-authorized data access to an authorized third party.
The Bureau’s rulemaking process will include panel convenings, as mandated under the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996, after which the panel will prepare a report for the Bureau to consider as it develops the proposed rule. “Dominant firms shouldn’t be able to hoard our personal data and appropriate the value to themselves,” CFPB Director Rohit Chopra said in announcing the rulemaking outline. Chopra further elaborated on the rulemaking’s purposes during an industry event earlier in the week (covered by InfoBytes here) where he said the Bureau plans to propose requiring financial institutions that offer deposit accounts, credit cards, digital wallets, prepaid cards, and other transaction accounts to set up secure methods for data sharing as a way to “facilitate new approaches to underwriting, payment services, personal financial management, income verification, account switching, and comparison shopping.”