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On February 6, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac each issued selling policy updates through SEL-2019-01 and Bulletin 2019-4, respectively. According to Fannie Mae’s Selling Guide announcement, the Guide has been updated to include (i) a change from the Quality Assurance System to the Loan Quality Connect platform for post-purchase reviews; (ii) changes to reflect the retirement of the Cost of Funds Index in January 2020; and (iii) a clarification that completion escrow accounts, which are required for construction that is not complete when the related mortgage is delivered to Fannie Mae, must be custodial accounts that satisfy the criteria in the Fannie Mae Servicing Guide.
Freddie Mac’s Bulletin included selling updates regarding, among other things, (i) changes to the Condominium Project requirements; (ii) updates to commission income treatment based on tax law changes; and (iii) updates to the Certificate of Incumbency forms for sellers and servicers.
On February 1, Chairman of the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, Mike Crapo (R-ID) released an outline for a sweeping legislative overhaul of the U.S. housing finance system. Most notably, the plan would end the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (GSEs) conservatorships, making the GSEs private guarantors while also allowing other nonbank private guarantors to enter the market. Highlights of the proposal include:
- Guarantors. The GSEs would be private companies, competing against other nonbanks for mortgages, subject to a percentage cap. The multifamily arms of the GSEs would be sold and operated as independent guarantors. Consistent with current GSE policy, the eligible mortgages would, among other things, be subject to loan limits set by FHFA and would be required to have an LTV of no more than 80 percent unless the borrower obtains private mortgage insurance.
- Regulation of Guarantors. FHFA, structured as a bi-partisan board of directors, would charter, regulate, and supervise all private guarantors, including the former GSEs. FHFA would be required to create prudential standards that include (i) leverage requirements; (ii) if appropriate, risk-based capital requirements; (iii) liquidity requirements; (iv) overall risk management requirements; (v) resolution plan requirements; (vi) concentration limits; and (vii) stress tests. Guarantors would be allowed to fail.
- Ginnie Mae. Ginnie Mae would operate the mortgage securitization platform and a mortgage insurance fund. Additionally, Ginnie Mae would provide a catastrophic government guarantee to cover tail-end risk, backed by the full-faith and credit of the U.S.
- Transition. In addition to a cap on the percent of all outstanding eligible mortgages, the legislation would require guarantors to be fully capitalized within an unspecified number of years after enactment.
- Affordable housing. Current housing goals and duty-to-serve requirements would be eliminated and replaced with a “Market Access Fund,” which is intended to address the homeownership and rental needs of underserved and low-income communities.
As previously covered by InfoBytes, on January 29, Chairman Crapo released the Senate Banking Committee’s agenda, which also prioritizes housing finance reform.
On January 25, top Democratic Congressional leaders, Maxine Waters and Sherrod Brown, wrote to acting Director of the FHFA, Joseph Otting, requesting that he clarify and expand on his reported remarks concerning the administration’s plan to move Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (collectively, “GSEs”) out of conservatorship. Specifically, Otting reportedly told FHFA employees that he would soon announce a plan to move the GSEs out from under government control and that he was given a “clear mission” outlined by Treasury and the White House of “what they want to accomplish” with the agency. Waters and Brown expressed concern about Otting’s ability to lead the agency independently based on these comments, as well as a recent filing of the agency with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit stating that the agency would no longer defend the constitutionality of the FHFA’s structure. (Covered by InfoBytes here.) Waters and Brown also requested that Otting submit by February 1 a copy of the “mission that Treasury and the White House have outlined.” In response, Otting stated that he appreciated the Democratic leaders’ interest in housing finance, outlined the statutory duties of the FHFA, and welcomed input as they “begin the journey of evaluating the Enterprises and developing a framework for ending conservatorship.”
As previously covered by InfoBytes, in June 2018, the White House announced a government reorganization plan titled, “Delivering Government Solutions in the 21st Century: Reform Plan and Reorganization Recommendations.” The plan covers a wide-range of government reorganization proposals, including a proposal to end the conservatorship of the GSEs and fully privatize the companies.
On January 16, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, in consultation with the FHFA, issued additional temporary guidance on selling policies that may be impacted during the government shutdown.
Freddie Mac Bulletin 2019-3 provides revisions to temporary guidance previously announced in Bulletin 2019-1 (see previous InfoBytes coverage here), and notifies sellers of temporary changes to certain Guide requirements to further assist impacted borrowers. Due to the length of the shutdown, Freddie Mac has added a minimum reserves requirement in order to offset the risk associated with a borrower’s interruption of income. Sellers must document the greater of two months reserves or the minimum reserves as required by the Loan Product Advisory and the Guide, for impacted mortgages with application received dates of January 16, 2019 or after. In addition, Freddie Mac will allow flexibility in circumstances where a seller is unable to meet the 10-day pre-closing verification of income and employment requirements for impacted mortgages regardless of the application received date. Freddie Mac also directs sellers of government funded, guaranteed, or insured mortgages sold to Freddie Mac to review government agency requirements.
Fannie Mae Lender Letter LL-2019-2 also provides additional temporary guidance on selling policies that may be impacted during the continued shutdown, and builds upon guidance issued last December. (See LL-2018-06 covered by InfoBytes here.) The additional guidance imposes a minimum liquid financial reserves requirement to offset risk and is applicable to loans with application dates on or after January 16, 2019. The new reserves requirement does not apply to high LTV refinances. Finally, Fannie Mae will provide additional flexibility with regard to verbal verification of employment and paystub age requirements.
On January 11, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae issued guidance regarding credit reporting during the government shutdown (see Bulletin 2019-2 and Lender Letter 2019-01). The guidance clarifies that servicers have flexibility when reporting the status of a mortgage loan to credit reporting agencies for a borrower affected by the shutdown, and are permitting, but not requiring, servicers to suppress credit reporting in these instances entirely.
On January 8, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) issued Circular 26-19-1, which encourages holders of VA-guaranteed loans to extend forbearance to borrowers in distress as a result of the government shut down. It also encourages servicers to waive late charges on loans where borrowers suffered income loss due the shutdown or who may have been affected due to the ripple effect of the shutdown and suspend credit reporting on the affected accounts. The VA also issued Circular 26-19-2, which clarifies that loans for borrowers directly impacted by the government shutdown are still eligible for guarantee by the VA, so long as the lender has obtained all the required documentation and the loan is current. The VA emphasizes that the furlough period should not be considered a break in employment for underwriting purposes provided the borrower returned to work in the same status and provides their furlough letter. Additionally, the VA reminds originators that, even though the IRS Form 4506-T is mentioned in the VA Lender’s Handbook as a condition of the Automated Underwriting Cases feedback certificate, that condition is an investor or lender overlay and the form is not actually required by VA guidelines. Lastly, if the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) is unavailable for routine certifications or correspondence regarding flood insurance, the VA reminds lenders that non-federal flood insurance policies are acceptable.
On January 3, Freddie Mac released guidance relating to loan origination and loan servicing during the government shutdown. According to Bulletin 2019-1, loans made to borrowers directly impacted by the government shutdown are still eligible for sale to Freddie Mac, even if the borrower is not receiving pay when the loan is delivered, so long as (i) all income and employment documentation requirements are met; (ii) the seller has no knowledge that the borrower will not return to work after the shutdown ends; and (iii) all other requirements of the “Seller’s Purchase Documents” are met. Freddie Mac also emphasizes that the IRS Form 4506-T and flood insurance requirements will remain unchanged during the shutdown. Additionally, Freddie Mac notes that loan servicers may offer forbearance to borrowers directly impacted by the shutdown.
On December 13, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) issued a proposed rule to establish new requirements for the verification of credit score models used by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (the Enterprises), as mandated by Section 310 of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (the Act). Under the proposed rule, the Enterprises will use a four-phase process to validate and approve credit score models including: (i) soliciting applications from credit score model developers; (ii) reviewing submitted applications for completeness, which includes the receipt of all required fees; (iii) conducting a credit score assessment, which would require the Enterprises to evaluate each credit score model for “accuracy, reliability and integrity, independent of the use of the credit score in the Enterprise’s systems, as well as any other requirements established by the Enterprise”; and (iv) assessing the model in conjunction with the Enterprises’ business systems. Additionally, the FHFA stated it will not require either of the Enterprises to use a third-party credit score model; however, any credit score used by the Enterprises as a condition to purchase of a loan “must be produced by a model that has been validated and approved by the Enterprise based on the standards and criteria in the [EGRRCPA] and FHFA regulations.” Comments will be due 90 days after publication in the Federal Register.
As previously covered by InfoBytes, the FHFA stated in July that it would set aside an ongoing initiative to evaluate the potential impact of a new credit score model on “access to credit, safety and soundness, operations in the mortgage finance industry, and competition in the credit score market,” in order to focus on implementing Section 310.
On December 6, the FDIC issued FIL-84-2018 announcing updates to the Affordable Mortgage Lending Guide, Part I: Federal Agencies and Government Sponsored Enterprises (Guide), which reflect current information available about mortgage products offered through Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The Guide covers federal programs targeted to a variety of communities and individuals including rural, Native American, low- and moderate-income, and veterans, and is designed to provide community banks resources “to gain an overview of a variety of products, compare different products, and identify next steps to expand or initiate a mortgage lending program.” Updates to the Guide include, among other things, (i) revisions to the Program Matrix; (ii) changes to student loan debt in FHA, Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac programs; and (iii) updates to certain FHA loan insurance products, USDA single family housing programs, and various Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac products.
On December 6, Freddie Mac issued Bulletin 2018-25 (Bulletin), announcing temporary selling requirements for certain mortgages secured by properties located in identified zip codes that were impacted by the California wildfires. With respect to properties located in the eligible areas with a mortgage application date on or before November 12, 2018 and a note date on or before May 12, 2019, the Bulletin, among other things, provides (i) age of documentation requirements that will remain in effect for six months; (ii) specific collateral requirements and guidance; and (iii) seller reimbursement for certain property inspections.
On December 5, Freddie Mac released Guide Bulletin 2018-24 (Bulletin) announcing selling and servicing updates, including updates to the Single-Family Seller/Servicer Guide to reflect 2019 loan limit increases for both base conforming and super conforming mortgages. (As previously covered by InfoBytes, on November 27, the FHFA raised the maximum base conforming loan limits for mortgages purchased in 2019 by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.) The Bulletin notes that Freddie Mac’s Loan Quality Advisor and Loan Product Advisor have been updated to allow sellers to immediately begin evaluating and originating mortgages with these new loan amounts. However, the Bulletin states that qualifying mortgages may not be sold to Freddie Mac until on or after January 1, 2019.
Among other things, the Bulletin also provides (i) single security initiative updates; (ii) updates to 10-day pre-closing verification requirements for union members; (iii) revised master insurance policy requirements for unaffiliated condominium projects or planned unit developments; and (iv) updates for document custodian requirements.
- Daniel P. Stipano to discuss "Dynamic customer due diligence and beneficial ownership from KYC to ongoing CDD and the new rule implementation" at the Puerto Rican Symposium of Anti-Money Laundering
- Michelle L. Rogers to discuss "Preparing for servicing exams in the current regulatory environment" at the Mortgage Bankers Association National Mortgage Servicing Conference & Expo
- Jon David D. Langlois to discuss "Regulatory risks of convenience fees" at the Mortgage Bankers Association National Mortgage Servicing Conference & Expo
- APPROVED Webcast: NMLS Annual Conference & Ombudsman Meeting: Review and recap
- Brandy A. Hood to discuss "Keeping your head above water in flood insurance compliance" at the Mortgage Bankers Association National Mortgage Servicing Conference & Expo
- Melissa Klimkiewicz to discuss "Servicing super session" at the Mortgage Bankers Association National Mortgage Servicing Conference & Expo
- Jessica L. Pollet to discuss "Law & compliance speedsmarts" at the American Financial Services Association Law & Compliance Symposium
- Daniel P. Stipano to discuss "Lessons learned from recent high profile enforcement actions" at the Florida International Bankers Association AML Compliance Conference
- Moorari K. Shah to provide "Regulatory update – California and beyond" at the National Equipment Finance Association Summit
- Sasha Leonhardt and John B. Williams to discuss "Privacy" at the National Association of Federally-Insured Credit Unions Spring Regulatory Compliance School
- Aaron C. Mahler to discuss "Regulation B/fair lending" at the National Association of Federally-Insured Credit Unions Spring Regulatory Compliance School
- Heidi M. Bauer to discuss "'So you want to form a joint venture' — Licensing strategies for successful JVs" at RESPRO26
- Jonice Gray Tucker to to discuss "DC policy: Everything but the kitchen sink" at CBA Live
- Jonice Gray Tucker to discuss "Small business & regulation: How fair lending has evolved & where are we heading?" at CBA Live
- Daniel P. Stipano to discuss "Lessons learned from ABLV and other major cases involving inadequate compliance oversight" at the ACAMS International AML & Financial Crime Conference
- Daniel P. Stipano to discuss "A year in the life of the CDD final rule: A first anniversary assessment" at the ACAMS International AML & Financial Crime Conference
- Moorari K. Shah to discuss "State regulatory and disclosures" at the Equipment Leasing and Finance Association Legal Forum
- Hank Asbill to discuss "Creative character evidence in criminal and civil trials" at the Litigation Counsel of America Spring Conference & Celebration of Fellows
- Hank Asbill to discuss "Pay no attention to the man behind the curtain: Addressing prosecutions driven by hidden actors" at the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers West Coast White Collar Conference
- Daniel P. Stipano to discuss "Keep off the grass: Mitigating the risks of banking marijuana-related businesses" at the ACAMS AML Risk Management Conference
- Daniel P. Stipano to discuss "Mid-year policy update" at the ACAMS AML Risk Management Conference
- Benjamin W. Hutten to discuss "Requirements for banking inherently high-risk relationships" at the Georgia Bankers Association BSA Experience Program