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  • 8th Circuit lets GSE shareholders seek retrospective relief


    On October 6, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit held that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac shareholders have standing to seek retrospective, but not prospective, relief related to their claims that they suffered damages as a result of the FHFA’s leadership structure. The shareholders alleged FHFA’s leadership structure and appointments violated the appointments clause, the separation of powers, and the non-delegation doctrine. Among other things, the shareholders claimed that (i) the Housing and Economic Recovery Act (Recovery Act), which created the agency, violated separation of powers principles because it only allowed the president to fire the FHFA director “for cause,” and (ii) FHFA acted outside its statutory authority when it adopted a third amendment to the Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreements, which replaced a fixed-rate dividend formula with a variable one requiring the GSEs to pay quarterly dividends equal to their entire net worth minus a specified capital reserve amount to the Treasury Department (known as the “net worth sweep”). The district court dismissed the claims for lack of standing, and in the alternative, rejected them on the merits.

    The 8th Circuit began by rejecting the district court’s holding that the shareholders lacked standing. Relying on the U.S. Supreme Court’s recent ruling in Collins v. Yellen (covered by InfoBytes here), the appellate court held that the shareholders’ alleged injury flowed from the adoption of the agreement containing the net worth sweep by FHFA’s acting director, who did not properly hold office. However, the shareholders were limited to seeking retrospective relief, because prospective relief was mooted by the adoption of subsequent amendments to the agreement by validly-appointed directors.

    However, the appellate court went on to hold that the shareholders were not entitled to relief based on their argument that the acting director had been in office too long in an “acting” role when he adopted the agreement. Even if the shareholders were correct, the acting director’s decisions were valid under the de facto officer doctrine, which confers validity on the acts of persons operating “under the color of official title even though it is later discovered that the legality of that person’s appointment or election to office is deficient.” Moreover, even if the de facto officer doctrine did not control, “[a]ny defect was resolved when the subsequent FHFA directors—none of whose appointments were challenged—ratified the third amendment.”

    The 8th Circuit also rejected the argument that Congress unlawfully delegated authority to FHFA in the Recovery Act, finding that the statute directs FHFA “to act as a ‘conservator,’ with clear and recognizable instructions.”

    Finally, the 8th Circuit did agree with the shareholders that FHFA’s leadership structure was unconstitutional because, as the Court held in Collins, it limited the president’s ability to remove the director. But the appellate court rejected the shareholders’ request that it vacate the adoption of the agreement containing the net worth sweep as a result, noting that the acting director was always “removable at will,” and that there was no allegation that subsequent agency directors (who took actions to implement the agreement) were appointed improperly. Still, the appellate court noted that, in Collins, the Court had remanded the case for a determination whether the constitutional violation “caused compensable harm” to the plaintiffs, and it did the same here.

    Courts Fannie Mae Freddie Mac GSE FHFA Single-Director Structure U.S. Supreme Court Shareholders

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  • DOJ team to address cryptocurrency

    Federal Issues

    On October 6, the DOJ announced the launch of the National Cryptocurrency Enforcement Team (NCET), which will focus on addressing “complex investigations and prosecutions of criminal misuses of cryptocurrency, particularly crimes committed by virtual currency exchanges, mixing and tumbling services, and money laundering infrastructure actors.” According to the DOJ, the NCET will combine “the expertise of the Department of Justice Criminal Division’s Money Laundering and Asset Recovery Section (MLARS), Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) and other sections in the division, with experts detailed from U.S. Attorneys’ Offices.” Among other things, the NCET will: (i) develop strategic priorities for investigations and prosecutions involving cryptocurrency; (ii) identify areas for increased investigative and prosecutorial focus; (iii) develop and maintain relationships with federal, state, local, and international law enforcement agencies involved in cryptocurrency cases; (iv) train federal prosecutors and law enforcement agencies in investigative and prosecutorial strategies; and (v) coordinate with private sector actors in cryptocurrency matters. In announcing the program, Deputy Attorney General Lisa Monaco stated that “[a]s the technology advances, so too must the Department evolve with it so that we’re poised to root out abuse on these platforms and ensure user confidence in these systems.”

    Federal Issues DOJ Cryptocurrency Anti-Money Laundering Enforcement Financial Crimes Virtual Currency

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  • FTC resurrects authority to penalize for-profit education institutions

    Federal Issues

    On October 6, the FTC unanimously resurrected the Penalty Offense Authority under Section 5 of the FTC Act to deter for-profit higher education institutions from engaging in certain unlawful practices. The Commission sent notices to 70 of the nation’s largest for-profit institutions to inform them that the FTC is “cracking down on any false promises they make about their graduates’ job and earnings prospects and other outcomes and will hit violators with significant financial penalties.” The notice outlines several practices previously found to be unfair or deceptive that could lead to civil penalties of up to $43,792 per violation and puts institutions on alert that they could incur significant sanctions should they engage in certain unlawful practices. Commissioner Rohit Chopra, who was recently confirmed as Director of the CFPB, issued a statement commending the initiative, noting that “[u]nder the FTC’s Penalty Offense Authority, the Commission and the Attorney General can seek substantial civil penalties against companies that engage in practices where they had knowledge that the practices were previously determined by a prior Commission order to be illegal.” This is a particularly important tool, Chopra stressed, given the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in AMG Capital Management, LLC v. FTC, which unanimously held that Section 13(b) of the FTC Act “does not authorize the Commission to seek, or a court to award, equitable monetary relief such as restitution or disgorgement” (covered by InfoBytes here).

    Federal Issues FTC FCPA Enforcement FTC Act For-Profit College Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Penalty Offense Authority

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  • DOJ proposes SCRA settlement with Texas auto lender

    Federal Issues

    On September 30, the DOJ announced a proposed settlement with a Texas-based auto lender, resolving allegations that the lender denied early motor vehicle lease terminations to qualifying servicemembers as required by the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA). The SCRA allows servicemembers to terminate their motor vehicle leases early without penalty if they enter military service or receive qualifying military orders for a permanent change of station or to deploy to another location. According to the DOJ’s complaint, filed concurrently with the proposed settlement, an investigation revealed 10 instances in which the lender allegedly failed to provide early lease terminations to qualifying servicemembers. As a result, the DOJ claimed that the servicemembers, among other things, continued to make payments for vehicles they no longer wanted and were charged early termination penalties. Under the terms of the proposed settlement, the lender is required to pay more than $94,000 in compensation to the affected servicemembers and a $40,000 civil penalty. The proposed settlement also requires the lender to update its SCRA policies and procedures to avoid future violations and to provide SCRA compliance training to any employees whose customer interaction includes discussion of early lease termination benefits.

    Federal Issues DOJ SCRA Enforcement Military Lending Auto Finance

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  • OFAC sanctions Mexican nationals

    Financial Crimes

    On October 6, the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) announced sanctions pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act against four individuals who are allegedly senior members of a Mexican-based drug cartel, which is said to be responsible for trafficking deadly drugs into the U.S. As a result of the sanctions, all property and interests in property subject to U.S. jurisdiction that belong to the sanctioned persons must be blocked and reported to OFAC. U.S. persons are also generally prohibited from engaging in any dealings involving the property or interests in property of blocked or designated persons. OFAC further notes that the designations against the individuals were made in collaboration with the Drug Enforcement Administration and Mexico’s Financial Intelligence Unit.

    Financial Crimes Department of Treasury OFAC FinCEN SDN List OFAC Sanctions OFAC Designations Mexico Drug Enforcement Administration Of Interest to Non-US Persons

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  • SEC charges hemp company with misrepresentations


    On October 5, the SEC filed a civil fraud complaint against a Canadian-based hemp company and its two co-founders (collectively, “defendants”), alleging that they fraudulently raised over $15 million from investors, and that they misappropriated a significant portion of the funds for personal and other unrelated uses. The SEC claims that the defendants made misrepresentations, including that the company was a fully integrated company that was processing hemp from its own farm. However, the SEC alleges that the company did not process any of its hemp, instead using products supplied by third parties. The complaint further contends that the financial information given to investors “misstated historical revenue numbers and included baseless projections about future revenue that were unsupported by the [c]ompany’s own internal forecasts.”

    The SEC’s complaint, which was filed in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, charges the defendants with violating antifraud provisions of federal securities laws. The complaint seeks a permanent injunction against the defendants, disgorgement with prejudgment interest, civil penalties, and an officer and director and penny stock ban against the co-founders. In addition, the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York filed criminal charges against the co-founders in a parallel action.

    Securities SEC Enforcement Fraud

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  • FinCEN extends FBAR filing deadline for natural disaster victims

    Financial Crimes

    On October 5, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) issued a notice extending the deadline to December 31, 2021 for victims of certain recent natural disasters to file their reports of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FBAR) for the 2020 calendar year. The expanded relief is offered to victims impacted by Hurricane Ida, the California wildfires, Tennessee severe storm and flooding, Michigan severe storms, flooding, and tornadoes, and Tropical Storm Fred. If FEMA later designates additional areas as eligible for individual assistance, FBAR filers in those locations will automatically receive the same filing relief. FinCEN also stated that it would work with FBAR filers who live outside the designated disaster areas but may have trouble meeting their filing obligations because their records are located in the affected areas.

    Financial Crimes Disaster Relief FinCEN FBAR Of Interest to Non-US Persons

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  • California to examine feasibility of public banking

    State Issues

    On October 4, the California governor signed AB 1177, which establishes the California Public Banking Option Act and requires the state treasurer to convene a commission to conduct a market analysis to determine the feasibility of establishing a program for California consumers who lack access to traditional banking services. The CalAccount Program, if implemented, would protect unbanked and underbanked consumers from predatory, discriminatory, and costly alternatives by providing “access to a voluntary, zero-fee, zero-penalty, federally insured transaction account . . . and related payment services at no cost to accountholders.”

    Among other things, the Act would (i) require the establishment of a process for accountholders to deposit funds into a CalAccount for no fee; (ii) impose a mandate requiring employers and hiring entities to maintain payroll direct deposit arrangements to allow workers to voluntarily participate in the program; (iii) require landlords to allow tenants to pay rent and security deposits by electronic funds transfers from a CalAccount; (iv) require a board (established to administer the program) to contract with and coordinate financial services vendors for the program and build an expansive financial services network of participating ATMs, banks, credit union branches, and other in-network partners to allow account holders to load or withdraw funds from their CalAccount without paying fees; (v) require the board to establish a no-fee process to allow all account holders to arrange for payments to a registered payee using a preauthorized electronic fund transfer from a CalAccount; (vi) establish rules governing the participation of individuals under the age of 18; (vii) provide a secure web-based portal and mobile application to allow individuals access and management of their CalAccount; and (viii) facilitate connectivity with other state and local government agencies and entities so public assistance programs and other disbursements may be directly deposited by electronic fund transfer into a CalAccount. The Act requires the commission to be convened on or before September 1, 2022, with the market analysis due on or before July 1, 2024 to the Chair of the Senate Committee on Banking and Financial Institutions and the Chair of the Assembly Committee on Banking and Finance.

    State Issues State Legislation California Consumer Finance Public Banking

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  • California governor signs legislation on debt collection

    State Issues

    On October 4, the California governor signed SB 531, which requires debt collectors to provide more information to consumers when assigned to collect a debt. Among other things, the bill: (i) expands the standards to allow Californians to verify a collector’s authority; (ii) bans creditors from selling the debt without first giving the debtor 30-day notice; (iii) requires debt buyers to provide a written statement to the debtor upon request; and (iv) prohibits, in certain circumstances, a debt collector from making a written statement to a debtor in an attempt to collect a delinquent consumer debt. The law is effective starting July 1, 2022.

    State Issues California Debt Collection Consumer Finance State Legislation

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  • HUD and Fed consider transition from LIBOR

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On October 5, HUD issued an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) seeking comments regarding the transition from the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) to alternate indices on adjustable rate mortgages (ARMs). According to the ANPRM, most ARMs insured by FHA are based on LIBOR, which is likely to become uncertain after December 31 and to no longer be published after June 30, 2023. Due to the uncertainty, HUD has begun to transition away from LIBOR and has approved the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) index in some circumstances. In recognizing that there may be certain difficulties for mortgagees transitioning to a new index, HUD “is considering a rule that would address a Secretary-approved replacement index for existing loans and provide for a transition date consistent with the cessation of the LIBOR index.” Furthermore, HUD “is also considering replacing the LIBOR index with the SOFR interest rate index, with a compatible spread adjustment to minimize the impact of the replacement index for legacy ARMs.” Comments on the ANPRM are due by December 6.

    The same day, Federal Reserve Vice Chair for Supervision Randal K. Quarles spoke at the Structured Finance Association Conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, reminding participants that they should cease utilizing LIBOR by the end of the year, “no matter how unhappy they may be with their options to replace it,” and further warned that the Fed will supervise firms accordingly. Quarles emphasized that, “[g]iven the availability of SOFR, including term SOFR, there will be no reason for a bank to use [LIBOR] after 2021 while trying to find a rate it likes better.”

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance HUD LIBOR Federal Register Federal Reserve SOFR Adjustable Rate Mortgage Mortgages

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