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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations


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  • Fed’s annual report: cybersecurity risk management & emerging threats

    Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security

    On August 1, the Fed released its 2023 Cybersecurity and Financial System Resilience Report. Required annually by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, the report describes the measures the Fed has taken to strengthen cybersecurity within the financial services sector and its supervision and regulation of financial institutions and service providers across the past year. The report details the Fed’s activities in the space, including issuing regulations and guidance for supervised institutions, examining and monitoring supervised institutions’ risk management, and collecting data on relevant cybersecurity incidents. Recent actions highlighted in the report include the publication of an updated Cybersecurity Resource Guide for Financial Institutions, a proposal to update the operational risk management requirements in Regulation HH for systematically important financial market utilities, and final joint guidance issued in conjunction with the FDIC and OCC regarding banking organizations’ risk management of third-party relationships. The Fed also describes the steps it is taking to protect its own operations and assets from cybersecurity threats.

    With respect to supervisory activities, the Fed notes that it “has observed improvement in cybersecurity practices over the past several years resulting from supervised institutions’ efforts to address supervisory findings as well as proactive steps taken by the institutions.” The report notes that the Fed is taking measures to address OIG recommendations relating to the effectiveness of its cybersecurity incident response process, including updating the cybersecurity incident response process’s mission and governance structure and enhancing guidance and training. The report describes the Fed’s close coordination with other participants in the global financial system in addressing cybersecurity risk, including domestic and international agencies, governance bodies, financial regulators, and industry.

    Finally, the report describes current and emerging threats to the financial system, including (i) geopolitical tensions and accompanying cyberattacks; (ii) cyber-criminal activity involving ransomware as a service, targeting of authentication mechanism weaknesses, and collaboration among cyberthreat actors; (iii) increasing potential of a supply chain or third-party attack; (iv) cyber risks associated with third-party providers; (v) insider threats; and (vi) other emerging technology-related threats, such as risks inherent to machine learning and quantum computing capabilities.

    Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security Federal Issues Bank Regulatory Risk Management Examination Federal Reserve

  • Agencies update guidance on liquidity risks and contingency planning

    On July 28, the OCC, FDIC, NCUA and Fed issued an addendum to the Interagency Policy Statement on Funding and Liquidity Risk Management, issued in 2010. The update on liquidity risks and contingency planning emphasizes that depository institutions should regularly evaluate and update their contingency funding plans, referencing the unprecedented deposit outflows resulting from the early 2023 bank failures. According to the addendum, depository institutions should assess the stability of their funding, keep a range of funding sources, and regularly test any contingency borrowing lines in order to prepare staff in the case of adverse circumstances. Additionally, the addendum states that if contingency funding arrangements include discount windows, the depository institutions should ensure they can borrow from the discount window by (i) establishing borrowing arrangements; (ii) confirming that collateral is available to borrow in an appropriate amount; (iii) conduct small value transactions regularly to create familiarity with discount window operations; (iv) establish familiarity with the pledging process for collateral types; and (v) be aware that pre-pledging collateral can be useful in case liquidity needs arise quickly. The agencies also state that federal and state-chartered credit unions can access the Central Liquidity Facility, which provides a contingent federally sourced backup liquidity where a credit union’s liquidity and market funding sources prove inadequate.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues OCC NCUA Federal Reserve FDIC Credit Union Liquidity Risk Management

  • Agencies propose new capital requirements for biggest banks

    On July 27, the FDIC’s Board of Directors unveiled proposed interagency amendments to the regulatory capital requirements for the largest and most complex banks in the United States. The notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), issued jointly by the FDIC, OCC, and the Federal Reserve Board (and passed by an FDIC Board vote of 3-2 and a Fed vote of 4-2), would revise capital requirements for large banking organizations with at least $100 billion in assets, as well as certain banking organizations with significant trading activity. (See also FDIC fact sheet here.) The proposed changes would implement the final components of the Basel III agreement—recent changes made to international capital standards issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision—as well as modifications made in response to recent bank failures in March, the agencies said.

    Specifically, the NPRM would implement standardized approaches for market risk and credit valuation adjustment risk by amending the way banks calculate their risk-weighted assets. According to FDIC FIL-38-2023, the new “expanded risk-based approach” would incorporate a standardized approach for credit risk and operational risk, a revised internal models-based approach, a new standardized measure for market risk, and a new revised approach for credit valuation adjustment. Banks subject to Category III and IV standards would also be required “to calculate their regulatory capital in the same manner as banking organizations subject to Category I and II standards, including the treatment of accumulated other comprehensive income, capital deductions, and rules for minority interest.” Additionally, the supplementary leverage ratio and the countercyclical capital buffer would be applied to banks subject to Category IV standards.

    The agencies said the proposed modifications are intended to:

    • Better reflect banks’ underlying risks;
    • Increase transparency and consistency by revising the capital framework in four main areas: credit, market, operational, and credit valuation adjustment risk;
    • Strengthen the banking system, by applying consistent capital requirements across large banks by requiring institutions to (i) include unrealized gains and losses from certain securities in capital ratios; (ii) comply with the supplementary leverage ratio requirement; and (iii) comply with the countercyclical capital buffer, if activated.

    The agencies predict that these changes will “result in an aggregate 16 percent increase in common equity tier 1 capital requirements for affected bank holding companies, with the increase principally affecting the largest and most complex banks.” The impact would vary by bank based on activities and risk profiles, the agencies stated, noting that most banks currently have enough capital to meet the proposed requirements. The NPRM would not amend capital requirements for smaller, less complex banks or for community banks. The agencies propose a three-year phased-in transition process beginning July 1, 2025, to provide banks sufficient time to accommodate the changes and minimize potentially adverse impacts. The changes would be fully phased in on July 1, 2028.

    Separately, the Fed also issued an NPRM on a proposal that would modify certain provisions relating to the calculation of the capital surcharge for the largest and most complex banks in order to “better align the surcharge to each bank’s systemic risk profile. . .by measuring a bank’s systemic importance averaged over the entire year, instead of only at the year-end value.”

    Comments on both NPRMs are due November 30.

    FDIC Chairman Martin Gruenberg stressed that “[e]nhanced resilience of the banking sector supports more stable lending through the economic cycle and diminishes the likelihood of financial crises and their associated costs.” Also voting in favor of the NPRM was CFPB Chairman and FDIC Board Member Rohit Chopra who expressed interest in feedback from the public on ways to simplify the methodologies used to calculate the requirements. Acting Comptroller of the Currency Michael also voted in favor and encouraged commenters “to include assumptions about capital distributions and competition from banks and other financial institutions in their analyses of the impacts of the proposal on lending and economic growth.”

    Voting against the new standards, FDIC Vice Chairman Travis Hill argued that while he supports strong capital requirements, he has several “concerns with the impact of excessive gold plating of international standards.” He stressed that the “proposal rejects the notion of capital neutrality and takes a starkly different path, ‘gold plating’ the new Basel standard in a number of ways and dramatically increasing capital requirements for banks with certain business models.”

    Bank Regulatory Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Federal Issues Federal Reserve FDIC OCC Capital Requirements Compliance Basel Committee

  • OCC releases recent enforcement actions

    On July 20, the OCC released a list of recent enforcement actions taken against national banks, federal savings associations, and individuals currently and formerly affiliated with such entities. Among the enforcement actions is a formal agreement with a California-based bank to update its BSA/AML compliance program. According to the agreement, the OCC identified deficiencies and violations relating to the bank’s compliance with BSA/AML laws and regulations. Among other things, the bank agreed to establish a compliance committee and revise its adherence to appropriate policies and procedures for collecting customer due diligence “when opening new accounts, when renewing or modifying existing accounts for customers, and when the [b]ank obtains event-driven information indicating that it needs to obtain updated customer due diligence information.” The bank also agreed to institute an “enhanced written risk-based program of internal controls and processes” to ensure an appropriate review of BSA/AML suspicious activity.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues OCC Enforcement Compliance Bank Secrecy Act Anti-Money Laundering Customer Due Diligence

  • EU-U.S. release statement on Joint Financial Regulatory Forum

    Federal Issues

    On July 20, participants in the U.S.-EU Joint Financial Regulatory Forum, including officials from the Treasury Department, Federal Reserve Board, CFTC, FDIC, SEC, and OCC, issued a joint statement regarding the ongoing dialogue that took place from June 27-28, noting that the matters discussed during the forum focused on six themes: “(1) market developments and financial stability risks; (2) regulatory developments in banking and insurance; (3) anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT); (4) sustainable finance and climate-related financial risks; (5) regulatory and supervisory cooperation in capital markets; and (6) operational resilience and digital finance.”

    Participants acknowledged that the financial sector in both the EU and the U.S. is exposed to risk due to ongoing inflationary pressures, uncertainties in the global economic outlook, and geopolitical tensions as a result of Russia’s war on Ukraine. During discussions, participants emphasized the significance of strong bank prudential standards, effective resolution frameworks, and robust supervision practices. They also stressed the importance of international cooperation and continued dialogue to monitor vulnerabilities and strengthen the resilience of the financial system. Participants took note of recent developments relating to, among other things, recent bank failures, digital finance, the crypto-asset market, and the potential adoption of central bank digital currencies.

    Federal Issues Bank Regulatory Financial Crimes Digital Assets Of Interest to Non-US Persons EU Department of Treasury Federal Reserve CFTC FDIC SEC OCC Anti-Money Laundering Combating the Financing of Terrorism

  • FDIC highlights inaccurate reporting of uninsured deposits by IDIs

    On July 24, the FDIC released a letter reporting that some insured depository institutions (IDIs) are not accurately reporting their estimated uninsured deposits as per the instructions on the Call Report. According to the letter, some IDIs are wrongly decreasing the reported amount based on the collateralization of uninsured deposits, even though the presence of collateral does not affect the portion covered by federal deposit insurance. The FDIC also noted that by excluding intercompany deposit balances of their subsidiaries, some IDIs are incorrectly reducing the reported amount of deposits on Schedule RC-O. The FDIC stated that “in reporting uninsured deposits, if an IDI has deposit accounts with balances in excess of the federal deposit insurance limit that it has collateralized by pledging assets…the IDI should make a reasonable estimate of the portion of these deposits that is uninsured using the data available from its information systems.” IDIs should refer to the general instructions for Call Reports on how to accurately submit data. The FDIC recommended that IDIs that have incorrectly reported uninsured deposits make appropriate changes to the data and submit a revised data file to the Central Data Repository.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues FDIC Depository Institution Call Report Deposit Insurance

  • Fed officially launches FedNow instant payment service

    On July 20, the Federal Reserve Board launched its FedNow service for instant payments. Banks and credit unions of any size can sign up and use the tool to instantly transfer money for their customers at any time of day on any day of the year, the Fed said. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the Fed began formally certifying participants to use the service in April. Early adopters completed a customer testing and certification program in preparation for sending live transactions through the system. In addition to these early adopting banks and credit unions (and the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Fiscal Service), 16 service providers are also ready to support payment processing for participants. Once fully available, “instant payments will provide substantial benefits for consumers and businesses, such as when rapid access to funds is useful, or when just-in-time payments help manage cash flows in bank accounts,” the Fed explained. The Fed expects that customers of FedNow participants will eventually be able to use a financial institution’s mobile app, website, and other interfaces to send instant payments quickly and securely. As an interbank payment system, FedNow will operate alongside other Fed payment services, including Fedwire and FedACH.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues Federal Reserve FedNow Payments

  • NYDFS: Auto loan borrowers are entitled to rebates for cancelled ancillary products

    State Issues

    On July 18, NYDFS sent a letter reminding regulated auto lenders and auto loan servicers that they are responsible for ensuring certain rebates are credited to consumers whose vehicles were repossessed or were a total loss. During its examinations, NYDFS identified instances where certain institutions that finance ancillary products, such as extended warranties, vehicle service contracts, and guaranteed asset protection insurance, failed to properly calculate, obtain, and credit rebates to consumers as required. NYDFS explained that the terms of sale for such ancillary products “provide that if the vehicle is repossessed or is a total loss prior to the product’s expiration, the consumer is entitled to a rebate for the prorated, unused value of the product (a ‘Rebate’), payable first to the [i]nstitution to cover any deficiency balance, and then to the consumer.” NYDFS found that some institutions either neglected to pursue Rebates from the issuers of the ancillary products or miscalculated the owed amounts, adding that in some instances, institutions made initial requests for Rebates but did not follow through to ensure that they were received and credited to consumers.

    NYDFS explained that an institution’s failure to obtain and credit Rebates from unexpired ancillary products is considered to be unfair “because it causes or is likely to cause substantial injury to consumers who are made to pay or defend themselves against deficiency balances in excess of what the consumer legally owes.” The resulting injury caused to consumers is not outweighed by any countervailing benefits to consumers or to competition, NYDFS stressed.

    Additionally, NYDFS said an institution’s statements and claims of consumers’ deficiency balances that do not include correctly calculated and applied Rebates are considered to be deceptive, as they mislead consumers about the amount they owe after considering all setoffs. NYDFS said it expects institutions to fulfill their contractual obligations by ensuring Rebates are properly accounted for, either by deducting them from deficiency balances or issuing refund checks if no deficiency balance is owed.

    NYDFS further noted in its announcement that recent CFPB examinations found that certain auto loan servicers engaged in deceptive practices when they notified consumers of deficiency balances that misrepresented the inclusion of credits or rebates. The Bureau’s supervisory highlights from Winter 2019, Summer 2021, and Spring 2022 also revealed that collecting or attempting to collect miscalculated deficiency balances that failed to account for a lender’s entitled pro-rata refund constituted an unfair practice.

    State Issues Bank Regulatory State Regulators NYDFS Auto Finance Consumer Finance UDAAP Ancillary Products Deceptive Unfair CFPB Act

  • FDIC announces Vermont disaster relief

    On July 19, the FDIC issued FIL-36-2023 to provide regulatory relief to financial institutions and help facilitate recovery in areas of Vermont affected by severe storms and flooding from July 7 through the present. The FDIC acknowledged the unusual circumstances faced by affected institutions and encouraged those institutions to work with impacted borrowers to, among other things: (i) extend repayment terms; (ii) restructure existing loans; or (iii) ease terms for new loans, provided the measures are done “in a manner consistent with sound banking practices.” Additionally, the FDIC noted that institutions “may receive favorable Community Reinvestment Act consideration for community development loans, investments, and services in support of disaster recovery.” The FDIC will also consider regulatory relief from certain filing and publishing requirements and instructed institutions to contact the New York Regional Office if they expect delays in making filings or are experiencing difficulties in complying with publishing or other requirements.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues FDIC Consumer Finance Disaster Relief Vermont

  • Fed vice chair calls for higher capital for large banks

    On July 10, Federal Reserve Board Vice Chair for Supervision Michael S. Barr delivered remarks at the Bipartisan Policy Center outlining proposed updates to capital standards. As part of his holistic review of capital standards for large banks, Barr concluded that the existing approach to capital requirements—including risk-based requirements, stress testing, risk-based capital buffers, and leverage requirements and buffers—was sound. He stated that the changes he proposes are intended to build on the existing foundation. Barr’s proposed updates include: (i) updating risk-based requirement standards to better reflect credit, trading, and operational risk, consistent with international standards adopted by the Basel Committee; (ii) evolving the stress test to capture a wider range of risks; and (iii) improving the measurement of systemic indicators under the global systemically important bank surcharge. Barr stated that at this time he was not recommending changes to the enhanced supplementary leverage ratio.

    Barr also proposed implementing changes to the risk-based capital requirements, referred to as the “Basel III endgame,” which are intended to ensure that the U.S. minimum capital requirements require banks to hold adequate capital against their risk-taking. These proposed changes include: (i) with respect to a firm’s lending activities, the proposed rules would terminate the practice of relying on banks’ own individual estimates of their own risk and would instead adopt a more transparent and consistent approach; (ii) regarding a firm’s trading activities, the proposed rules would adjust the way that the firm measures market risk, better aligning market risk capital requirements with market risk exposure and providing supervisors with improved tools; and (iii) for operational losses, such as trading losses or litigation expenses, the proposed rules would replace an internal modeled operational risk requirement with a standardized measure.

    Barr recommended that these enhanced capital rules apply only to banks and bank holding companies with $100 billion or more in assets. He emphasized that the proposed changes would not be fully effective for some years due to the notice and comment rulemaking process, and that any final rule would provide for an appropriate transition.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues Federal Reserve Capital Basel Risk Management


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