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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations


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  • CFPB orders bank to pay $6.2 million; alleges overdraft fees violate CFPA, EFTA

    Federal Issues

    On December 7, the CFPB announced a consent order against a Virginia-based bank, alleging it engaged in deceptive acts and practices and failed to comply with Regulation E. According to the CFPB, the bank did not comply with Regulation E because it did not provide appropriate written disclosures before enrolling customers in its overdraft service and imposing overdraft fees. The CFPB alleged that under the bank’s procedures, branch employees would provide oral disclosures and obtain oral consent but did not provide customers with the required written consent form under Regulation E until the end of the account-opening process. According to the CFPB, while the bank changed its practices partway through the period covered by the consent order, the disclosures it provided were still inadequate. The bank allegedly “requested that new customers orally specify their enrollment decision before providing them with adequate written notice describing the [opt-in] service,” which thereby allegedly breached the Electronic Fund Transfer Act. 

    The CFPB also alleged the bank committed deceptive actions or practices when marketing opt-in overdraft services to consumers via telephone. Specifically, the CFPB alleged that the bank did not provide its customer service representatives with a script, which resulted in representatives failing to clearly differentiate between transactions covered by the bank’s standard versus its opt-in overdraft protection service. The CFPB asserted that these statements qualified as “representations and omissions of key information were likely to mislead consumers,” and that as a result, the Bank did not comply with the CFPA and Regulation E.  

    The consent order imposes a $1.2 million civil money penalty and requires the bank to refund at least $5 million to affected consumers. The consent order also requires the bank to obtain a new overdraft enrollment decision from affected consumers before charging overdraft fees. Moreover, the bank must also create and implement a comprehensive compliance plan to ensure its overdraft program complies with all applicable laws. Finally, the consent order requires the bank to monitor compliance, maintain records, and inform the CFPB of any changes or developments that could impact its compliance responsibilities in the consent order. 

    Federal Issues CFPB CFPA Regulation E Overdraft Disclosures Opt-In Enforcement

  • EU court clarifies conditions for imposing GDPR fines


    On December 5, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) issued a judgment clarifying the conditions under which a General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) fine can be imposed on data controllers. The judgment is in response to two cases involving GDPR fines: (i) a German case in which a real estate company was fined for allegedly storing personal data for tenants for longer than necessary, and (ii) a Lithuanian case in which a government health center was fined in connection to the creation of an app that registered and tracked people exposed to Covid-19.

    In the judgment, the CJEU clarified that a data controller can only face an administrative fine under the GDPR for intentional or negligent violations—that is, violations for which a data controller was aware or should have been aware of “the infringing nature of its conduct,” regardless of their knowledge of the specific violation. The judgment also held that for a legal person, it is not necessary for the violation to be committed by its “management body,” nor does that body need to have knowledge of the specific violation. Instead, the legal person is accountable for violations committed by its representatives, directors, or managers, and those acting on their behalf within the business scope. Additionally, imposing an administrative fine on a legal entity as a data controller does not require prior identification of a specific person responsible for the violation.

    The judgment also addressed administrative fines for operations involving multiple entities. The CJEU noted that a controller may have a fine imposed upon it for actions undertaken by its processor. The court also clarified that a joint controller relationship arises from the two or more entities participating in determining the purpose and means for processing, and “does not require that there be a formal arrangement between the entities in question.”

    To calculate the amount of an administrative fine under the GDPR, the supervisory authority must consider the notion of an “undertaking” under competition law. The maximum fine must be based on the percentage of the total worldwide annual turnover of the particular undertaking in the preceding business year.

    Courts European Union GDPR Enforcement

  • FTC to send refunds to service providers implicated in false claims enforcement action

    Federal Issues

    On November 28, the FTC announced it is sending more than $3 million in refunds to businesses from an enforcement action against a Colorado-based digital marketplace company. In 2022, the FTC filed an administrative complaint alleging, among other things, that the defendant made false, misleading, or unsubstantiated claims regarding the quality and source of the leads it was selling to service providers, such as general contractors and small lawn care businesses (covered by InfoBytes here). As a result of its January proposed order, FTC will disperse 110,372 refunds to eligible home service providers, and is sending out 91,273 claims forms to businesses that paid for one of defendant’s services.


    Federal Issues FTC Enforcement Consumer Protection

  • CFPB obtains stipulated judgment ordering student financing company to pay over $30 million in damages

    Federal Issues

    On November 20, the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware entered a stipulated judgment in favor of the CFPB and 11 other state enforcement agencies in connection with an adversary proceeding against a vocational training program. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the complaint alleged that the education firm (company) engaged in deceptive practices by misrepresenting its income share agreement as not a loan and not debt, and misleading borrowers into believing that no payments would need to be made until they received a job offer. According to the CFPB, the company trained consumers to become sales development representatives, an entry-level role that requires “little or no prior sales experience or training,” and made promises it could not deliver on, such as promising a “6-figure” career in software sales. The company also initially priced its services at $2,500 in 2018, and then increased it to $15,000 the following year without any value justification. The company would recoup its payment through income share agreements (ISA). The CFPB alleged multiple causes of action against the company, including violations of the CFPA, TILA, and the FDCPA, among others. The stipulated judgment includes orders requiring the company to refund student borrowers, cancel outstanding loans, and permanently shut down.

    Federal Issues CFPB Enforcement State Attorney General Consumer Protection CFPA TILA FDCPA Regulation Z

  • NYDFS settles with title insurance company for $1 million

    Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security

    On November 27, the NYDFS entered into a consent order with a title insurance company, which required the company to pay $1 million for failing to maintain and implement an effective cybersecurity policy and correct a cybersecurity vulnerability. The vulnerability allowed members of the public to access others’ nonpublic information, including driver’s license numbers, social security numbers, and tax and banking information. The consent order indicates the title insurance company discovered the vulnerability as early as 2018. The title insurance company’s failure to correct these changes violated Section 500.7 of the Cybersecurity Regulation.

    In May 2019, a cybersecurity journalist published an article on the existence of a vulnerability in the title insurance company’s application, that led to a public exposure of 885 million documents, some found through search engine results. The journalist noted that “replacing the document ID in the web page URL… allow[ed] access to other non-related sessions without authentication.” Following the cybersecurity journalist’s article, and as required by Section 500.17(a) of the Cybersecurity Regulation, the title insurance company notified NYDFS of its vulnerability, at which point NYDFS investigated further. The title insurance company has been ordered to pay the penalty no later than ten days after the effective date.

    Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security State Issues Securities NYDFS Auto Insurance Enforcement

  • DFPI orders desist and refrain against investment firm

    State Issues

    On November 16, under California Corporations Code § 25532, the California Division of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) issued a desist and refrain order against a securities investment platform for allegedly making false representations and material omissions to investors.

    The DFPI alleges the investment platform sold securities in California on its website and the platform referred to them as “certificates.” The platform claimed that the certificates paid investors returns ranging from 2.5 percent to five percent in addition to guaranteed monthly returns. To solicit investors, the platform allegedly engaged in a multi-level marketing (MLM) structure that would have investors influence others to send money. DFPI alleged that the certificates were not qualified under the California Corporate Securities Law. DFPI also alleged that the platform omitted material information to investors, which included (i) falsely representing that the platform was partnered with a particular forex broker; (ii) representing that it was a licensed bank (while omitting that the “license” was granted by a “fictitious regulator”); (iii) using the terms “bank” and “banking” while omitting that it was not authorized to engage in the business of banking in California; (iv) misrepresenting profits and risk of loss; and (v) failing to disclose that its securities were not qualified in California.  

    State Issues Securities DFPI Enforcement Investment California

  • DOJ seizes $9 million in crypto from criminal scammers

    Financial Crimes

    On November 21, the DOJ seized nearly $9 million in stablecoins from cryptocurrency scammers after the criminals exploited over 70 victims. The DOJ seized stablecoins, a certain crypto asset pegged to a central bank’s currency, tied to the U.S. dollar. The scammers employed a long-con technique called “pig butchering” which is a tactic to build and exploit a victim’s trust over time by creating fake romantic enticements meant to swindle victims into handing over money. The criminals targeted and convinced victims to “make cryptocurrency deposits by fraudulently representing that the victims were making investments with trusted firms and cryptocurrency exchanges.”

    The DOJ was able to trace the stolen funds based on the funds’ cryptocurrency addresses as part of a money laundering technique known as “chain hopping… used to ‘layer’ the proceeds of criminal activity into new cryptocurrency ecosystems, all to obfuscate the… ownership of those proceeds.” The DOJ worked with the U.S. Secret Service to trace the victim’s deposits, and it was originally alerted from victim reports made on the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center and the FTC’s Consumer Sentinel Network.

    Financial Crimes DOJ Cryptocurrency Stablecoins Enforcement Money Laundering

  • FTC orders prison contractor to fix security exposures after data breach

    Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security

    On November 16, the FTC issued a proposed order against an integrated technology services company finding a violation of Section 5(a) of the Federal Trade Commission Act. According to the order, the company offered various products and services to jails, prisons, and detention facilities. These products and services included means of communication between incarcerated and non-incarcerated individuals, and, among other things, allowed non-incarcerated individuals to deposit funds into the accounts of incarcerated individuals. According to the complaint, and due to the nature of its operations, the company collected individuals’ sensitive personally identifiable information, including names, addresses, passport numbers, driver’s license numbers, Social Security numbers, and financial account information, some of which was exposed as a result of a data breach in August 2020 due to a misconfiguration in the company’s cloud storage environment.

    In its decision, the FTC ordered the company to, among other things, (i) implement a comprehensive data security program, including “change management” measures and multifactor authentication; (ii) notify users affected by the data breach, who had not yet received notice, and offer credit monitoring and identity protection products; (iii) inform consumers and facilities within 30 days of future data breaches; and (iv) notify the FTC within 10 days of reporting any security incident to local, state, or federal authorities.

    Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security Federal Issues FTC Data Enforcement

  • SEC charges crypto firm for failing to register and mitigate risk factors


    On November 20, the SEC filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court of the Northern District of California against a crypto trading platform, which allows customers to buy and sell crypto assets through an online market, for allegedly acting as an unregistered securities exchange, broker, dealer, and clearing agency. The SEC is also claimed defendant’s business practices, internal controls, and recordkeeping were inadequate and presented additional risks to consumers, that would also be prohibited had defendant been properly registered with the commission. For instance, the SEC cited practices including commingling billions of dollars of consumers’ cash and crypto assets with defendant’s own crypto assets and cash, which defendant’s 2022 independent auditor identified as “a significant risk of loss."

    Director of the SEC’s Division of Enforcement, Gurbir S. Grewal said, “[Defendant’s] choice of unlawful profits over investor protection is one we see far too often in this space, and today we’re both holding [defendant] accountable for its misconduct and sending a message to others to come into compliance.”

    The SEC seeks to (i) permanently enjoin defendant from violating Section 5 and section 17A of the Exchange Act; (ii) permanently enjoin defendant from offering or selling securities through crypto asset staking programs; (iii) disgorge defendant’s allegedly illegal gains and pay prejudgment interest; and (iv) impose a civil money penalty.

    Securities SEC Cryptocurrency Enforcement California Digital Assets Broker

  • OCC releases enforcement actions

    On November 16, the OCC released a list of recent enforcement actions taken against national banks, federal savings associations, and individuals currently and formerly affiliated with such entities. Included is a cease and desist order against an Indiana bank for allegedly engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, related to corporate governance and enterprise risk management, credit underwriting and administration, liquidity risk management, and interest rate risk management. The order requires the bank to, among other things, (i) provide quarterly reports detailing corrective action and efforts to comply with the order; (ii) develop a written strategic plan; (iii) maintain specified capital ratios; (iv) engage an independent third party to review board and management supervision; (v) submit a written concentration risk management program and a written liquidity risk management program; (vi) adopt a credit underwriting and administration program; (vii) submit and adopt a written adequate allowance for credit losses; and (viii) adopt a written credit derivatives program.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues OCC Enforcement Cease and Desist


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