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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations

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  • Agencies release host state loan-to-deposit ratios

    On June 28, the FDIC, Federal Reserve Board, and OCC (collectively, "the agencies") released the current host state loan-to-deposit ratios for each state or territory, which the agencies use to determine compliance with Section 109 of the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 (Interstate Act). Under the Interstate Act, banks are prohibited from establishing or acquiring branches outside of their home state for the primary purpose of deposit production. Branches of banks controlled by out-of-state bank holding companies are also subject to the same restriction. Determining compliance with Section 109 requires a comparison of a bank’s estimated statewide loan-to-deposit ratio to the estimated host state loan-to-deposit ratio. If a bank’s statewide ratio is less than one-half of the published host-state ratio, an additional review is required by the appropriate agency, which involves a determination of whether a bank is reasonably helping to meet the credit needs of the communities served by the bank’s interstate branches.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues OCC FDIC Bank Compliance Federal Reserve Riegle-Neal Act

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  • Fed to implement new Fedwire message format in March 2025

    On June 27, the Federal Reserve Board announced the final timeline and implementation details for the adoption of the International Organization for Standardization’s (ISO) 20022 message format for its Fedwire Funds Service—a real-time gross settlement system owned and operated by the Federal Reserve Banks that enables businesses and financial institutions to quickly and securely transfer funds. (See notice here.) The final details are “broadly similar” to the Fed’s proposal issued last October (covered by InfoBytes here). The Fed confirmed that ISO 20022 will be adopted on a single day as previously proposed instead of in three separate phases. Additionally, the Fed extended the implementation timeframe from a target date of November 2023 to March 10, 2025, based on comments received in response to the initial proposal. The Fed also provided information concerning its revised testing strategy and backout strategy, as well as other details concerning the implementation of the new message format.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Federal Reserve Payments Payment Systems Federal Reserve Banks

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  • OCC releases report on mortgage performance

    On June 27, the OCC released its quarterly mortgage metrics report, which presents performance data for the first quarter of 2022 for loans that reporting banks own or service for others as a fee-based business. The first-lien mortgages included in the OCC’s quarterly report comprise 22 percent of all residential mortgage debt outstanding in the U.S., or approximately 12.2 million loans totaling $2.6 trillion in principal balances. The report, among other things, found that the performance of first-lien mortgages in the federal banking system improved during the first quarter of 2022. According to the report, 96.9 percent of mortgages were current and performing at the end of the quarter. The percentage of seriously delinquent mortgages was 1.8 percent in the first quarter of 2022, compared to 2.3 percent in the prior quarter. However, foreclosures increased compared to the prior quarter and a year earlier as pandemic-related accommodations wound down, with servicers initiating 19,524 new foreclosures in the first quarter of 2022.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues OCC Mortgages Foreclosure

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  • FDIC releases May enforcement actions

    On June 24, the FDIC released a list of 14 public enforcement actions taken against banks and individuals in May. These orders consist of “two consent orders, one modification of an 8(e) prohibition order, three orders to pay civil money penalty, three orders of prohibition, two section 19 orders, and one order of prohibition from further participation and order to pay, one order terminating amended supervisory prompt corrective action directive, and one order of termination of insurance.” Included is an order to pay a civil money penalty imposed against a Texas-based bank related to alleged violations of the Flood Disaster Protection Act. Among other things, the FDIC claimed that the bank failed “to obtain flood insurance or obtain an adequate amount of insurance coverage, at or before loan origination, for all structures in a flood zone, including multiple structures,” and failed “to force-place flood insurance, after loan origination, when the insurance on buildings securing the loan” was insufficient or nonexistent. The order assessed a $2,000 civil money penalty.

    The FDIC also issued a consent order against a Utah-based bank based on alleged unsafe or unsound banking practices relating to the Bank Secrecy Act. The bank neither admitted nor denied the alleged violations but agreed to, among other things, “increase its oversight of the Bank's compliance with the BSA” and “conduct a comprehensive assessment of BSA/AML staffing needs.”

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues FDIC Flood Insurance Flood Disaster Protection Act Bank Secrecy Act Anti-Money Laundering Enforcement

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  • OCC reports on key risks facing the federal banking system

    On June 23, the OCC released its Semiannual Risk Perspective for Spring 2022, which reports on key risks threatening the safety and soundness of national banks, federal savings associations, and federal branches and agencies. The OCC reported that as “banks continue to navigate the operational- and market-related impacts of the pandemic along with substantial government stimulus, current geopolitics have tightened financial conditions and increased downside risk to economic growth.” However, the OCC noted that banks’ financial conditions remain strong and that banks are well-positioned to “deal with the economic headwinds arising from geopolitical events, higher interest rates and increased inflation.”

    The OCC highlighted operational, compliance, interest rate, and credit risks as key risk themes in the report. Observations include: (i) operational risk, including evolving cyber risk, is elevated, with an observed increase in attacks on the financial services industry given current geopolitical tensions; (ii) compliance risk remains heightened as banks navigate the current operational environment, regulatory changes, and policy initiatives; and (iii) credit risk remains moderate, with banks facing certain areas of weakness and potential longer-term implications resulting from the Covid-19 pandemic, inflation, and direct and indirect effects of the war in Ukraine. Staffing challenges among banks also present risks, with challenges posed by “strong competition” in the labor market.

    The report also discussed the importance of appropriate due diligence of new digital asset products and services. The OCC said that it “continues to engage on an interagency basis to analyze various crypto-asset use cases,” and is looking to “provide further clarity on legal permissibility, as well as safety and soundness and compliance considerations related to crypto-assets” in the banking industry. 

    The OCC further stated it “will continue to monitor the development of climate-related financial risk management frameworks at large banks,” and reported that “OCC large-bank examination teams will integrate the examination of climate-related financial risk into supervision strategies and continue to engage with bank management to better understand the challenges banks face in this effort, including identifying and collecting appropriate data and developing scenario analysis capabilities and techniques.”

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues OCC Risk Management Third-Party Risk Management Compliance Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security Operational Risk Climate-Related Financial Risks Digital Assets Nonbank

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  • Fed announces enforcement actions against Minnesota and Arkansas state banks

    On June 21, the Federal Reserve Board released civil penalty orders against two state banks, both relating to alleged violations of the National Flood Insurance Act (NFIA) and its implementing regulation, Regulation H. The first civil penalty order, against a Minnesota-based bank, assessed a $4,950 penalty for an alleged pattern or practice of violations of Regulation H but does not specify the number or the precise nature of the alleged violations. The second civil penalty order, against an Arkansas-based bank, assessed a $13,950 penalty for an alleged pattern or practice of violations of Regulation H without specifying the number or precise nature of the alleged violations. The maximum civil money penalty under the NFIA for a pattern or practice of violations is $2,000 per violation.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Reserve Flood Insurance Enforcement National Flood Insurance Act Regulation H

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  • CFPB to look at late fees on cards

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On June 22, the CFPB issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) soliciting information from credit card issuers, consumer groups, and the public regarding credit card late fees and late payments, and card issuers’ revenue and expenses. Under the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (CARD Act) rules inherited by the CFPB from the Federal Reserve, credit card late fees must be “reasonable and proportional” to the costs incurred by the issuer as a result of a late payment. However, the rules provide for a safe harbor limit that allows banks to charge certain fees, adjusted for inflation, regardless of the costs incurred. Calling the current credit card late fees “excessive,” the Bureau stated it intends to review the “immunity provision” to understand how banks that rely on this safe harbor set their fees and to examine whether banks are escaping enforcement scrutiny “if they set fees at a particular level, even if the fees were not necessary to deter a late payment and generated excess profits.”

    In 2010, the Federal Reserve Board approved implementing regulations for the CARD Act that allowed credit card issuers to charge a maximum late fee, plus an additional fee for each late payment within the next six billing cycles (subject to an annual inflation adjustment). As the CFPB reported, the safe harbor limits are currently set at $30 and $41 respectively. The CFPB pointed out that in 2020, credit card companies charged $12 billion in late fee penalties. “Credit card late fees are big revenue generators for card issuers. We want to know how the card issuers determine these fees and whether existing rules are undermining the reforms enacted by Congress over a decade ago,” CFPB Director Rohit Chopra said. Chopra issued a separate statement on the same day discussing the current credit card market, questioning whether it is appropriate for card issuers to receive enforcement immunity if they hike the cost of credit card late fees each year by the rate of inflation. “Do the costs to process late payments really increase with inflation? Or is it more reasonable to expect that costs are going down with further advancements in technology every year?” he asked.

    Among other things, the ANPRM requests information relevant to certain CARD Act and Regulation Z provisions related to credit card late fees to “determine whether adjustments are needed.” The CFPB’s areas of inquiry include: (i) factors used by card issuers to determine late fee amounts and how the fee relates to the statement balance; (ii) whether revenue goals play a role in card issuers’ determination of late fees; (iii) what the costs and losses associated with late payments are for card issuers; (iv) the deterrent effects of late fees and whether other consequences are imposed when payments are late; (v) methods used by card issuers to facilitate or encourage timely payments such as autopay and notifications; (vi) how late are most cardholders’ late payments; and (vii) card issuers’ annual revenue and expenses related to their domestic consumer credit card operations. The Bureau stated that public input will inform revisions to Regulation Z, which implements the CARD Act and TILA. Comments on the ANPRM are due July 22.

    The ANPRM follows a June 17 Bureau blog post announcing the agency’s intention to review a “host of rules” inherited from other agencies such as the FTC and the Federal Reserve, including the CARD Act. (Covered by InfoBytes here.)

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Federal Issues Bank Regulatory CFPB Consumer Finance Federal Reserve CARD Act Regulation Z Fees Credit Cards

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  • FDIC issues a proposed rule on assessments, revised deposit insurance assessment rates

    On June 21, the FDIC Board of Directors issued a notice of proposed rulemaking to increase deposit insurance assessment rates by 2 basis points for all insured depository institutions to increase the likelihood that the reserve ratio of the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) reaches the statutory minimum of 1.35 percent by September 2028, the statutory deadline. In September 2020, the FDIC adopted a DIF restoration plan to restore the reserve ratio to at least 1.35 percent by September 2028. However, according to the press release, insured deposits continued to grow and, as of March 31, the reserve ratio declined by 4 basis points to 1.23 percent. The FDIC also adopted on June 21 an Amended Restoration Plan, incorporating the increase in assessment rates to provide a buffer to ensure that the DIF achieves the 2028 target and accelerate capitalization of the fund toward the long-term 2 percent goal. In a memorandum providing an update on the restoration plan to the Board of Directors, the FDIC stated that “for the industry as a whole, staff estimate that the estimated annual increase in assessments would average 1% of income, which includes an average of 0.9% for small banks and an average of 1% percent for large and highly complex institutions.” The FDIC also released a Fact Sheet on the DIF, which provides information on the amended restoration plan and notice of proposed rulemaking on assessments and revised deposit insurance assessment rate. The FDIC released a statement regarding the DIF Restoration Plan to incorporate a uniform increase in initial base deposit insurance assessment rates of 2 basis points and to accelerate the time for the reserve ratio to reach the statutory minimum, stating that it “would allow the banking industry to remain a source of strength for the economy during a potential future downturn, and would promote public confidence in federal deposit insurance.” CFPB Director Rohit Chopra released a statement expressing his support for the Amended Plan and proposed increase, referring to these as “important short-term actions.” Chopra also expressed support for the Board to, in the long term, “explore a new mechanism to automatically adjust premiums upward and downward based on economic conditions, rather than relying on ad-hoc actions.” Comments are due by August 20.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues Agency Rule-Making & Guidance FDIC CFPB Deposit Insurance

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  • FDIC updates Consumer Compliance Examination Manual’s UDAAP provisions

    On June 17, the FDIC announced updates to its Consumer Compliance Examination Manual (CEM). The CEM includes supervisory policies and examination procedures for FDIC examination staff when evaluating financial institutions’ compliance with federal consumer protection laws and regulations. The June update modifies Section VII Unfair, Deceptive, or Abusive Acts or Practices to reflect the FDIC’s existing supervisory authority regarding UDAP and UDAAP under Section 5 of the FTC Act, and Sections 1031 and 1036 of the Dodd-Frank Act, respectively. Among other updates, the new Section VII changes language related to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Fair Housing Act to add a reference to Dodd-Frank UDAAP provisions. The updated section provides the following:

    ECOA prohibits discrimination in any aspect of a credit transaction against persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age (provided the applicant has the capacity to contract), the fact that an applicant’s income derives from any public assistance program, and the fact that the applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the Consumer Credit Protection Act. The FHA prohibits creditors involved in residential real estate transactions from discriminating against any person on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin. FTC UDAPs and Dodd-Frank UDAAPs that target or have a disparate impact on consumers in one of these prohibited basis groups may violate the ECOA or the FHA, as well as the FTC Act or the Dodd-Frank Act. Moreover, some state and local laws address discrimination against additional protected classes, e.g., handicap in non-housing transactions, or sexual orientation. Such conduct may also violate the FTC Act or the Dodd-Frank Act.

    With respect to the legal standards for “unfair” and “deceptive” under the FTC Act and Dodd-Frank, Section VII notes that these standards are “substantially similar.”

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues FDIC Examination UDAAP UDAP Compliance FTC Act Dodd-Frank Fair Lending Discrimination ECOA Fair Housing Act

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  • OCC announces disaster relief guidance

    On June 15, the OCC issued a proclamation permitting OCC-regulated institutions, at their discretion, to close offices affected by flooding in Montana “for as long as deemed necessary for bank operation or public safety.” The proclamation directs institutions to OCC Bulletin 2012-28 for further guidance on actions they should take in response to natural disasters and other emergency conditions. According to the 2012 Bulletin, only bank offices directly affected by potentially unsafe conditions should close, and institutions should make every effort to reopen as quickly as possible to address customers’ banking needs.

    Bank Regulatory Federal Issues Disaster Relief OCC Consumer Finance

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