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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations

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  • OCC issues new UDAP/UDAAP Comptroller’s Handbook booklet

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On June 29, the OCC issued a new Comptroller’s Handbook booklet, “Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices and Unfair, Deceptive, or Abusive Acts or Practices,” which covers details for examiners regarding UDAP violations under Section 5 of the FTC Act and UDAAP violations under sections 1031 and 1036 of the Dodd-Frank Act. The booklet includes, among other things, examination procedures for assessing the effectiveness of a bank’s compliance management systems in identifying and managing UDAP and UDAAP risks and red flags that examiners can use to identify acts or practices that may raise UDAP or UDAAP concerns. Specifically, Appendix A includes a detailed list of nine red flags that examiners can use to identify potential areas with higher risks, including items such as (i) customer complaints received by the OCC or the bank; (ii) whistleblower referrals; (iii) higher than average fee incomes; (iv) weak servicing and collection practices; and (v) inadequate oversight over incentive compensation programs. Additionally, Appendix B includes risk indicator charts for examiners to use when assessing the quantity and quality of a bank’s risk management for UDAP and UDAAP.  

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance OCC Comptroller's Handbook FTC Act UDAP UDAAP Dodd-Frank

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  • House approves resolution to reverse OCC’s CRA rule

    Federal Issues

    On June 29, the U.S. House of Representatives approved resolution H.J. 90, along party lines, which would reverse the OCC’s final rule (covered by a Buckley Special Alert) to modernize the regulatory framework implementing the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA). As previously covered by InfoBytes, Chair of the House Financial Services Committee, Maxine Waters (D-CA) and Chair of the Subcommittee on Consumer Protection and Financial Institutions, Gregory Meeks (D-NY) introduced the resolution, with Waters criticizing the OCC’s decision to move forward with the rule “despite the Federal Reserve and the FDIC—the other regulatory agencies responsible for enforcing CRA—declining to join in the rulemaking.” While the resolution is unlikely to pass the Senate, the White House released a Statement of Administration Policy, which opposes the resolution and states that the President’s advisors will recommend he veto the action.

    Federal Issues House Financial Services Committee CRA Congressional Review Act OCC Agency Rule-Making & Guidance U.S. House White House

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  • FDIC follows OCC, adopts final rule addressing Madden

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On June 25, the FDIC issued a final rule clarifying that whether interest on a loan is permissible under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act is determined at the time the loan is made and is not affected by the sale, assignment, or other transfer of the loan. The FDIC’s final rule effectively reverses the Second Circuit’s 2015 Madden v. Midland Funding decision as applicable to state banks and follows the OCC’s issuance of a similar rule earlier this month for national charters. Specifically, the FDIC’s final rule states that, “[w]hether interest on a loan is permissible under section 27 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act is determined as of the date the loan was made. . . [and] shall not be affected by a change in State law, a change in the relevant commercial paper rate after the loan was made, or the sale, assignment, or other transfer of the loan, in whole or in part.” Additionally, the FDIC rule mirrors the OCC in specifying that the rule does “not address the question of whether a State bank. . .is a real party in interest with respect to a loan or has an economic interest in the loan under state law, e.g. which entity is the ‘true lender.’” Details on the effect of these rules can be found in Buckley’s Special Alert on the OCC’s issuance.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance FDIC OCC Madden Interest Rate State Issues

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  • Agencies finalize covered funds changes to Volcker Rule

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On June 25, the Federal Reserve Board, CFTC, FDIC, OCC, and SEC (agencies) finalized the rule, which will amend the Volcker Rule to modify and clarify the regulations implementing Section 13 of the Bank Holding Company Act with respect to covered funds. As covered by InfoBytes in February, the agencies issued the proposed rule, and, after the notice and comment period, finalized the proposal with certain modifications based on the public comments. Among other things, the final rule (i) exempts qualifying foreign excluded funds from certain restrictions, but modifies the anti-evasion provision and compliance program requirements from the proposal; (ii) revises the exclusions from the covered fund provisions for foreign public funds, loan securitizations, and small business investment companies; (iii) adopts several new exclusions from the covered fund provisions, including an exclusion for venture capital funds, family wealth management, and customer facilitation vehicles; (iv) permits established, codified categories of limited low-risk transactions between a banking entity and a related fund; (v) provides an express safe harbor for senior loans and senior debt, and redefines “ownership interest”; and (vi) provides clarity regarding permissible investments in the same investments as a covered fund organized or offered by the same banking entity. The final rule is effective October 1.

    The FDIC also released a Fact Sheet on the final rule.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance OCC Federal Reserve FDIC SEC CFTC Supervision Volcker Rule Bank Holding Company Act Of Interest to Non-US Persons

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  • OCC highlights key risks for federal banking system, says compliance risk elevated due to Covid-19

    Federal Issues

    On June 29, the OCC released its Semiannual Risk Perspective for Spring 2020, which reports on key risk areas that pose a threat to the safety and soundness of national banks and federal savings associations. In particular, the OCC focused this report on the financial impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on the federal banking industry, emphasizing that weak economic conditions stemming from the shutdown will stress financial performances in 2020, and that banks should monitor elevated compliance risks that may occur as a result of their responses to the pandemic, including participating in the Paycheck Protection Program as well as forbearance and deferred payment programs. The report highlighted that the surge in consumer demands, government programs, and the modifications to operations due to remote work and the “short timelines for implementing changes placed additional strains on banks already operating in a stressed environment.” However, the report noted that, “[s]ome banks are leveraging innovative technologies and third parties, including fintech firms, to help manage these challenges,” and that “[b]ank risk management programs should maintain effective controls for third-party due diligence and monitoring and other oversight processes, operational errors, heightened cyber security risks, and potential fraud related to stimulus programs.” The report highlighted several areas of concern for banks, including (i) credit risk increases; (ii) interest rate risk, including risks related to the LIBOR cessation; (iii) operational risks related to banks’ Covid-19 response; (iv) heightened cyber risks; and (v) compliance risks related to Bank Secrecy Act/anti-money laundering laws, consumer compliance, and fair lending.

    Federal Issues OCC Covid-19 Risk Management Fintech Third-Party SBA Compliance

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  • OCC: National banks do not need state money transmitter licenses to exercise fiduciary powers

    Federal Issues

    In June, the OCC posted an interpretive letter to establish that a national bank, subject to certain limits established by 12 U.S.C. § 92a and 12 C.F.R. part 9, may exercise fiduciary powers in any state without obtaining a state money transmitter license. Interpretive Letter #1167 responds to a request for clarification as to whether a bank, whose fiduciary powers are derived from and governed by the National Bank Act and OCC regulations, is required to obtain a state money transmitter license or exemption in order to exercise its fiduciary capacity. The OCC determined that under 12 U.S.C. § 92a, national banks are authorized to act in specific fiduciary capacities “and any other fiduciary capacity permitted for state institutions when acting in the capacity is not in contravention of state law.” The OCC noted that while a national bank’s fiduciary capacities are determined by reference to state law, 12 U.S.C. § 92a (i) “imposes no geographic limits on where a national bank with fiduciary powers may act in a fiduciary capacity”; and (ii) “does not limit where a national bank may market its fiduciary activities, where its fiduciary customers may be located, or where the property being administered may be located.” As such, a national bank may conduct federally authorized fiduciary activities in any state, even if aspects of the bank’s activities fall within a state’s definition of money transmission and the bank is not licensed as a money transmitter in that state. According to the OCC, state laws that are intended to impose licensing requirements on a national bank’s exercise of fiduciary powers are preempted and satisfaction of an exemption from those requirements is not required. However, the OCC cautioned that “[d]ifferent facts and circumstances or consideration of different laws and regulations could result in a different conclusion.”

    Federal Issues OCC Money Service / Money Transmitters Licensing State Issues

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  • Community coalitions file complaint to block OCC CRA final rule

    Federal Issues

    On June 25, two community coalitions filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California asking the court to block the OCC’s final rule to modernize the regulatory framework implementing the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA). The complaint claims that the OCC failed to provide for meaningful public input on key revisions to the agency’s final rule, and argues that the May 20 rule (covered by a Buckley Special Alert) failed to consider the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic and is in violation of the Administrative Procedures Act. Notably, neither the FDIC nor the Federal Reserve Board joined in promulgating the final rule, the complaint notes. Among other things, the complaint argues that the final rule “guts the [CRA] and eviscerates the backing it provides to the [low- and moderate-income (LMI)] communities and communities of color that have long suffered from discrimination by financial institutions,” and will dilute benefits for these communities. The complaint also alleges that the final rule “will allow banks to claim credit for massive projects that they undoubtedly would have financed anyway; whose benefit to LMI people is questionable and speculative; and that are so costly that they will allow banks to fill up their CRA credits without making real investments in LMI communities as the CRA intended.” Additional arguments include that the final rule limits the coalitions’ ability to advocate for greater access to credit for LMI communities, issue evidence-based reports on banks’ CRA activity, and negotiate CRA funding increases with banks for specific communities. The complaint further alleges that the final rule includes definitions of “CRA deserts”—areas where banking services are not available—that were not part of the proposal, and fails to provide supporting data for many of the provisions. The coalitions seek injunctive and declaratory relief that would block the final rule from taking effect.

    Federal Issues Courts OCC CRA Administrative Procedures Act Covid-19 FDIC Federal Reserve

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  • CSBS challenges OCC’s Covid-19 preemption bulletin

    Federal Issues

    On June 24, the Director of Regulatory Policy & Policy Counsel at CSBS, Mike Townsley, wrote a blog post in response to the OCC’s Bulletin on Covid-19 preemption, arguing that the bulletin does not have the force and effect of law. As previously covered by InfoBytes, on June 17, the OCC issued a Bulletin stating that banks are governed primarily by federal standards and generally are not subject to state law limitations. The OCC acknowledged states’ efforts to respond to the economic disruptions as “well-intended,” but noted that the competing requirements could risk banks’ safety and soundness. The Bulletin also provided specific examples of the types of state laws that do not apply to banks’ lending and deposit activities.

    In response, Townsley asserts that the Bulletin has no preemptive effect, because the OCC did not follow the “process required by the National Bank Act (NBA) to determine that these state COVID-19 relief measures are preempted.” Specifically, Townsley argues that through the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, Congress “amended the NBA to overturn the OCC’s preemption regulations and establish substantive procedural requirements for the determination of whether the NBA preempts a state law.” The requirements include a court or the OCC having to conclude that the law “‘prevents or significantly interferes with the exercise by the national bank of its powers,’” which determination, according to Townsley, if made by the OCC, must be on a case-by-case basis, and include a notice and comment period and the backing of “‘substantial evidence’ on the record.” Townsley also seeks to cast further doubt as to whether the preemption regulations cited by the Bulletin can serve as a guide on procedural grounds, observing that Dodd-Frank requires the OCC to review and decide, through notice and comment, whether to “continue or rescind” each preemption determination every five years, and it has been “well over five years” since the rules were adopted and no such review has ever been conducted. Townsley concludes by citing to the 19th century Supreme Court decision Nat'l Bank v. Commonwealth, stating that national banks “’are subject to the laws of the State.’”

    Federal Issues Covid-19 OCC CSBS State Issues Preemption National Bank Act

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  • Financial regulators issue examiner guidance on Covid-19

    Federal Issues

    On June 23, the federal financial institution regulatory agencies (Federal Reserve Board, OCC, FDIC, and NCUA), in conjunction with the state bank and credit union regulators, issued interagency examiner guidance for assessing the safety and soundness of financial institutions in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. The joint guidance states that due to the “unique, evolving, and potentially long-term nature of the issues confronting institutions” from the Covid-19 pandemic, examiners will “exercise appropriate flexibility in their supervisory response.” The guidance acknowledges that Covid-19 can have an adverse impact on the financial condition and operational capabilities of financial institutions that have appropriate governance and risk management systems in place.

    Among other things, the guidance notes that examiners will (i) “continue to assign supervisory ratings in accordance with the interagency CAMELS and ROCA rating systems”; and (ii) “assess the reasonableness of management’s actions in response to the pandemic given the institution’s business strategy and operational capacity.” The guidance also provides details on things such as capital adequacy and asset quality for examiners to consider when assigning composite and component CAMELS and ROCA ratings.

    Federal Issues Covid-19 Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Federal Reserve OCC FDIC NCUA State Regulator Examination Supervision

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  • FDIC and OCC mitigate Covid-19 assessment effects

    Federal Issues

    On June 22, the FDIC and the OCC released separate rules aimed at mitigating the assessment effects of participation in Covid-19 programs. Specifically, the FDIC issued a final rule to limit the deposit insurance effects of participation in the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP), the Paycheck Protection Program Liquidity Facility (PPPLF), and Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (MMLF). Among other things, the final rule (i) removes the effect of PPP lending and borrowings under the PPPLF in calculating risk measures for an insured depository institution’s assessment rate; (ii) provides an offset to the total assessment amount for the increase in assessment base due to participation in the PPP and MMLF; and (iii) removes the effect of PPP and MMLF participation when classifying institutions as small, large, or highly complex for assessment purposes. The final rule is applicable as of April 1.

    Under the OCC’s interim final rule (see also Bulletin 2020-63), the assessments due on September 30 for covered banks will be based on the December 31, 2019 Call Report for each institution, rather than the June 30 Call Report, in order to lower the assessments for supervised banks. However, if an institution’s June 30 Call Report is lower than the December 31, 2019 report, the OCC will use the lower of the two options. The interim final rule expires after the September 30 assessment collection.

    Federal Issues Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Covid-19 SBA OCC FDIC Small Business Lending Assessments

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