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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations


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  • Florida legislature introduces comprehensive privacy bill

    State Issues

    On February 15, the Florida legislature filed HB 969, which would, among other things, regulate the sale and sharing of consumers’ personal data. Highlights of the bill include:

    • Applicability. The bill will apply to for profit businesses that do business in the state, collect consumers’ personal information (“or is the entity on behalf of which such information is collected”), and (i) have global annual gross revenues exceeding $25 million; (ii) annually buy, receive, sell, or share for commercial purposes, personal information of at least 50,000 consumers, households, or devices; or (iii) derive 50 percent or more of its gross revenue from the sale of personal information. Notably, data governed by certain federal regulations and specified protected health information are exempt from coverage.
    • Consumer rights. Under the bill consumers will be able to, among other things, access their personal data; have available at least two methods for requesting personal information free of charge within a certain timeframe; make corrections; request deletion of their data; obtain a copy of their data in a portable format; and opt out of third-party disclosure of their personal information collected by businesses. Businesses will also be prohibited from selling or disclosing the personal information of minor consumers, except in certain circumstances, and will be prohibited from taking certain discriminatory actions against consumers who exercise certain rights. Additionally, the bill will provide that contracts or agreements that waive or limit certain consumer rights are void and unenforceable.
    • Disclosures. The bill will require businesses that collect consumers’ personal data to disclose certain information regarding data collection and selling practices to consumers at or before the point of collection. This information “may be provided through a general privacy policy or through a notice informing the consumer that additional specific information will be provided upon a certain request.” Businesses will also be prohibited from collecting or using additional categories of personal information without first notifying consumers.
    • Security. Under the bill, businesses will be required “to implement reasonable security procedures and practices” to protect consumers’ personal information. The definition of “personal information” will also be revised “to include additional specified information to data breach reporting requirements.”
    • Private cause of action. The bill will provide “a private right of action for consumers whose nonencrypted and nonredacted personal information or e-mail addresses are subject to unauthorized access,” and will allow consumers to bring a civil action for injunctive or declaratory relief, as well as damages that must be at least $100 but not more than $750 per consumer per incident or actual damages, whichever is greater. The Department of Legal Affairs is also authorized to seek civil penalties of no more than $2,500 for each unintentional violation or $7,500 for each intentional violation. However, fines may be tripled if a violation involves consumers 16 years of age or younger.
    • Right to cure. Upon notification of any alleged violation of the law, businesses have 30 days to cure the alleged violation.

    If enacted in its current form, the bill would take effect January 1, 2022. Florida is just one of several states that have recently introduced or advanced privacy legislation (continuing InfoBytes coverage available here).

    State Issues State Legislation Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security Biometric Data Consumer Protection

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  • New York introduces biometric privacy act

    State Issues

    On January 6, New York Assembly Bill A 27 was prefiled in the 2021-22 state legislative session, which would establish the Biometric Privacy Act and establish provisions regarding the retention, collection, disclosure and destruction of biometric identifiers or biometric information. Highlights of the bill include:

    • Private entities in possession of biometric identifiers or information will be required to develop a written public policy “establishing a retention schedule and guidelines for permanently destroying biometric identifiers and information when the initial purpose for collecting or obtaining such identifiers or information has been satisfied or within three years of the individual’s last interaction with the private entity, whichever occurs first.” Further, unless a private entity possesses a valid warrant or court subpoena, it must comply with its established retention schedule and destruction guidelines.
    • Prior to obtaining a person’s biometric identifier or information, a private entity must inform the subject (or a subject’s legally authorized representative) in writing that the identifier or information is being collected or stored, the specific purpose and length of term for which it is being collected, stored, and used, and must receive a written release from the subject or legally authorized representative.
    • Private entities may not sell, lease, trade, or otherwise profit from a person’s biometric identifier or information.
    • Private entities may not disclose, redisclose, or otherwise disseminate such information unless (i) the subject provides consent; (ii) “the disclosure or redisclosure completes a financial transaction requested or authorized by the subject” or the subject’s legally authorized representative; or (iii) the information is required by a valid warrant or court subpoena.
    • Private entities must take measures to store, transmit, and protect all biometric identifiers and information from disclosure “using the reasonable standard of care within the private entity’s industry” and “in a manner that is the same as or more protective than the manner in which the private entity stores, transmits, and protects other confidential and sensitive information.”
    • The bill provides a private right of action for any person aggrieved by the bill’s provisions, including damages of $5,000 or actual damages (whichever is greater), reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs, and other relief including injunctive relief as deemed appropriate.

    Notably, the New York Biometric Privacy Act is a close parallel to the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act, which was enacted in 2008.

    State Issues State Legislation Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security Biometric Data

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  • Federal District Court Allows Discovery in Class Action Concerning Internet Company’s Collection of Biometric Data

    Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security

    In a Memorandum Opinion and Order handed down on February 27, a District Court in the Northern District of Illinois declined to dismiss a putative class action alleging that a cloud-based photographic storage service offered by an Internet company (the Company) violated the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act (BIPA) by automatically uploading plaintiffs’ mobile photos and allegedly scanning them to create unique face templates (or “faceprints”) for subsequent photo-tagging without consent.  Specifically, the Court rejected the Company’s argument that application of BIPA to facial geometry scanning by by an internet service located outside of Illinois is an improper extraterritorial application of Illinois law. 

    The Plaintiffs alleged that the Company failed to both (i) obtain the necessary authorization or consent to the creation and subsequent storing of “faceprints” by the photo storage service, or (ii) make publicly available a data retention and destruction schedule as required under the BIPA.  In responding to these claims, the Company argued that the term “biometric identifier,” as defined in the BIPA, does not extend to “in-person scans of facial geometry” and does not cover photographs or information derived from photographs.  The Company also sought to dismiss the case on jurisdictional grounds, arguing that under principles of federalism, pre-emption, and the extra-jurisdictional application of state law, the BIPA cannot properly regulate activity – such as the storage of data on the Company’s servers – that does not occur “primarily and substantially” within the state of Illinois.

    In analyzing the Company’s argument, the Court looked to the following two definitions set forth in the Illinois law:

    • “Biometric identifier,” which is defined as “a retina or iris scan, fingerprint, voiceprint, or scan of hand or face geometry” and explicitly “do[es] not include writing samples, written signatures, photographs. . . .”; and
    • “Biometric information,” which is defined as “any information, regardless of how it is captured, converted, stored, or shared, based on an individual’s biometric identifier used to identify an individual,” and explicitly “does not include information derived from items or procedures excluded under the definition of biometric identifiers.” 

    Ultimately, the Court disagreed with the Company’s reading of “biometric data” because, among other reasons, “nothing in the text of [the BIPA] directly supports this interpretation.”  The Court deferred deciding on the Company’s arguments that the claims would require extraterritorial application of the statute and/or would violate the Dormant Commerce Clause by reaching beyond state boundaries, because, among other reasons, “[d]iscovery is needed to determine whether there are legitimate extraterritoriality concerns.”

    On March 9, the Company filed a motion seeking permission to file an interlocutory appeal to the Seventh Circuit, with a request for a stay of further proceedings pending the appellate court’s decision on the request for an appeal.  

    Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security Courts State Issues Biometric Data

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