Subscribe to our InfoBytes Blog weekly newsletter and other publications for news affecting the financial services industry.
On November 1, the SBA announced that three new Small Business Lending Company (SBLC) licenses have been issued to lenders focused on underserved markets, which is notably the first expansion of the SBLC program in more than 40 years. An SBLC license permits lending institutions to leverage government guarantees during the process of approving small business loans, decreasing risk for the lender, and lowering costs for the borrower. Consequently, SBA noted, SBLCs can extend a greater number of loans to small businesses than would be feasible without government support. The announcement stated that SBA's current SBLCs surpass banks and credit unions in their ability to provide loans to minority-owned businesses.
In June, the SBA opened a window for new applications for lenders. In announcing the new licensees, SBA Administrator Isabel Guzman stated that “[w]ith the addition of three new Small Business License Companies, the SBA will be able to serve even more small business owners who need capital to start, operate, and grow their businesses.” The SBA highlighted that “[e]ach of the three new SBLC license holders will focus on historically underserved markets, including small businesses in Native, rural, and low-income communities.”
Recently, the U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution of disapproval (S.J. Res. 32) under the Congressional Review Act to nullify the CFPB’s small business lending rule. As previously covered on InfoBytes, the rule, which requires financial institutions to collect and report to the CFPB credit application data for small businesses, has faced opposition from various politicians and is the subject of litigation brought by financial institutions that would be subject to the rule in the U.S. District Court of the Southern District of Texas. In support of the joint resolution, Sen. John Kennedy (R-LA), who introduced the legislation, recently argued on the floor that “the CFPB is setting these small business people… up for lawsuits” because “[it] has promulgated a rule that totally perverts our intention in section 1071.” If the House of Representatives similarly passes the joint resolution, and President Biden signs it, the CFPB’s rule will be nullified under the Congressional Review Act.
The joint resolution follows the order from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas granting a nationwide preliminary injunction enjoining the CFPB from enforcing the rule (covered by InfoBytes here and here).
On October 26, the U.S. District Court of the Southern District of Texas entered an order granting intervenors’ motions for preliminary injunction against the CFPB and its small business loan rule.
As previously covered by InfoBytes, the district court entered an order in August enjoining enforcement of the rule pending the Supreme Court’s decision in Consumer Financial Protection Bureau v. Community Fin. Serv. of Am. and extending the rule’s compliance date to account for the tine the stay remained in place. The court, however, limited that relief to the plaintiffs at that time—a bank and two bank trade associations—and their members. In the wake of this ruling, separate trade associations representing small business lenders asked the CFPB to take administrative action to ensure that the compliance date for other lenders would be adjusted commensurately. The CFPB declined their request.
In response, separate groups of intervenor plaintiffs, including trade associations representing other types of small business lenders, intervened in the action and filed motions seeking to expand the scope of the preliminary injunction to all affected lenders (or at least their members), claiming the court’s decision to spare some from the rule put them at a competitive disadvantage. The CFPB opposed those motions (covered by InfoBytes here).
In its most recent order, the court reasoned that the preliminary injunction should extend to intervenors because the CFPB lacked evidence supporting its argument that that greater harm would result from a stay on its 1071 rule and “its intended benefits for small businesses failed to tip the balance in their favor.” The court reasoned that the purpose of the statute underlying the Bureau’s final rule is the equal application of lending laws to all credit applications to avoid disparate outcomes, presuming uniform application to covered financial institutions. Therefore, to exempt plaintiffs and not all other covered financial institutions would undermine the statute, leaving “non-exempted lenders subject to the discretion of an agency whose very ability to act is a matter of constitutional concern pending resolution on a nationwide scale.” Under that reasoning, the district court granted plaintiffs’ motions for preliminary injunction, enjoining the CFPB from implementing its 1071 Rule for small business lending.
On September 14, U.S. District Judge Karen K. Caldwell issued an order granting an injunction sought by the Kentucky Bankers Association and eight Kentucky-based banks to enjoin the CFPB from implementing and enforcing requirements for small business lenders until the U.S. Supreme Court rules on the CFPB’s funding structure (previously covered by InfoBytes here and here).
As previously covered by InfoBytes, the plaintiff banks filed their motion for a preliminary injunction seeking an order to enjoin the CFPB from enforcing the Small Business Lending Rule against them for the same reasons that a Texas district court enjoined enforcement of the rule (Texas decision covered by InfoBytes here). The CFPB argued, among other things, that the plaintiff banks failed to satisfy the factors necessary for preliminary relief, that the plaintiff banks are factually wrong in asserting that the Rule would require lenders to compile “‘scores of additional data points’ about their small business loans,” and the “outlier ruling of the 5th Circuit” in the Texas case does not demonstrate that the plaintiff banks are entitled to the relief they seek.
In the order granting the preliminary injunction, Judge Caldwell discussed the factors for determining whether injunctive relief is appropriate. Notably, Judge Caldwell determined that the irreparable harm factor weighs in favor of the plaintiffs, stating “[p]laintiffs are already incurring expenses in preparation for enforcement of the Rule and will not be able to recover upon a Supreme Court ruling that the CFPB’s funding structure is unconstitutional.” Additionally, Judge Caldwell indicated that the likelihood of success factor “does not tip the scale in either direction,” and the substantial harm to others if the preliminary injunction is granted, and the public interest factors “carry little weight” because “[b]efore the Rule becomes enforceable, a decision on the merits will be issued by the highest court in the land.”
Judge Caldwell found that the imposition of the preliminary injunction “will create no harm to the CFPB nor the public since the rule would not otherwise be enforceable in the interim” and granted the preliminary injunction “in the interest of preserving the status quo until the Supreme Court has made its decision.”
On September 5, the CFPB filed an opposition to a motion for a preliminary injunction made by a group of Kentucky banks (plaintiff banks) in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the plaintiff banks filed their motion for a preliminary injunction seeking an order to enjoin the CFPB from enforcing the Small Business Lending Rule against them for the same reasons that a Texas district court enjoined enforcement of the rule (Texas decision covered by InfoBytes here). The CFPB argues that the plaintiff banks have not satisfied any of the factors necessary for preliminary relief, including that they have not shown that their claim is likely to succeed on the merits, and they have not shown that they face imminent irreparable harm. The Bureau also argues that the plaintiff banks are factually wrong in asserting that the Rule would require lenders to compile “‘scores of additional data points’ about their small business loans,” and that the additional data requirements are consistent with the Bureau’s statutory authority to require such additional data if it assists in “‘fulfilling the purposes of [the statute].’” The CFPB argues, among other things, that the “outlier ruling of the 5th Circuit” in the Texas case does not demonstrate that the plaintiff banks are entitled to the relief they seek.
DFPI recently approved the final regulation for implementing and interpreting certain sections of the California Consumer Financial Protection Law (CCFPL) related to commercial financial products and services. After considering comments and releasing three rounds of modifications to Sections 1060, 1061, and 1062, the final regulation will, among other things, bring protections to small businesses seeking loans, by (i) defining and prohibiting unfair, deceptive, and abusive acts and practices in the offering or provision of commercial financing to small businesses, nonprofits, and family farms; and (ii) establishing data collection and reporting requirements.
Previous InfoBytes coverage on the (i) initial modifications to the CCFPL proposed regulation can be found here; (ii) the second round of CCFPL modifications proposal is found here; and (iii) the third iteration of the modified CCFPL proposal is located here.
This DFPI regulation was notably finalized on the heels of the CFPB’s finalized Section 1071 rule on small business lending data, which similarly will require financial institutions to collect and provide the Bureau data on lending to small businesses (covered by InfoBytes here)
Sections 1060, 1061, and 1062 will be effective on October 1.
CFPB contests motions for preliminary injunctions to block enforcement of Small Business Lending Rule
On August 22, the CFPB filed an opposition to a motion made by a group of intervenors seeking to expand the scope of a preliminary injunction issued by the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, which enjoined the CFPB from implementing its Small Business Lending Rule. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the original plaintiffs in the litigation, a Texas banking association and a Texas bank, challenged the legality of the CFPB’s Small Business Lending Rule. After the American Bankers Association joined the case, the plaintiffs sought, and the court granted, a preliminary injunction enjoining implementation and enforcement of the rule against plaintiffs and their members. The intervenors, who consist of both banking and credit union trade associations, as well as individual banks and credit unions, seek a nationwide injunction that would apply beyond the parties to the case, or at least to the intervenors and their members. The CFPB’s opposition to this request for an expanded preliminary injunction argues that the intervenors fail to show that they would suffer immediate harm from enforcement of the Small Business Lending Rule.
In a related matter, on August 21, a group of Kentucky banks and a Kentucky banking association filed a motion for a preliminary injunction in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky against the CFPB, seeking a preliminary injunction enjoining the CFPB from enforcing the Small Business Lending Rule against the plaintiffs and their members. Referencing the parallel Texas litigation, the Kentucky plaintiffs allege that they are entitled to an order enjoining enforcement of the Small Business Lending Rule against them for the same reasons that the Texas district court enjoined enforcement of the rule.
The most recent litigation activity follows a request from a group of trade associations to the CFPB to take administrative action to address the disparity in compliance dates that results from the district court’s injunction, a disparity that the trade associations argue is both unfair and disruptive to the market’s compliance efforts. The CFPB declined this request.
Both of these challenges to the Small Business Lending Rule point to a recent decision issued by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in Community Financial Services Association of America v. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, where the court found that the CFPB’s “perpetual self-directed, double-insulated funding structure” violated the Constitution’s Appropriations Clause (covered by InfoBytes here), as justification for why the final rule should ultimately be set aside.
On August 16, the Small Business Administration (SBA) announced the availability of low-interest disaster loans available to businesses and residents across the nation.
- Mississippi – In light of damage from severe storms, straight-line winds, and flooding that occurred between June 14-19, certain private non-profit businesses (PNP) that do not provide critical services of a governmental nature are eligible to apply for low-interest disaster loans. PNP organizations may borrow up to $2 million with an interest rate of 2.375% to repair or replace damage. SBA is also offering economic injury disaster loans to help meet the needs of PNP organizations. The filing deadline is Oct 11, and the deadline to submit economic injury applications is May 13, 2024.
- Illinois – Following the announcement of the presidential disaster declaration due to severe storms and flooding June 29-July 2, SBA is offering affected businesses and residents in Illinois low-interest loans. SBA detailed that disaster loans up to $500,000 are available to homeowners to replace or repair damage, and “[i]nterest rates are as low as 4% for businesses, 2.375% for nonprofit organizations, and 2.5% for homeowners and renters, with terms up to 30 years.” The filing deadline is Oct 16, and the deadline to submit economic injury applications is May 13, 2024.
- New Jersey – In light of damage from severe storms and flooding that occurred June 14-19, certain PNP organizations that do not provide critical services of a governmental nature are eligible to apply for low-interest disaster loans. PNP organizations may borrow up to $2 million with an interest rate of 2.375% with terms up of to 30 years to repair or replace damage. SBA is also offering economic injury disaster loans to help meet the needs of PNP organizations. The filing deadline is Oct 10, and the deadline to submit economic injury applications is May 13, 2024.
- Oklahoma – SBA is making low-interest federal disaster loans available for certain PNP organizations in certain counties following the announcement of the presidential disaster declaration. PNP organizations may borrow up to $2 million with an interest rate of 2.375% with terms of up to 30 years to repair or replace damage. “SBA can also lend additional funds to help with the cost of improvements to protect, prevent or minimize the same type of disaster damage from occurring in the future.”
On July 31, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas entered an order granting in part and denying in part a motion for a preliminary injunction against the CFPB. The injunction, filed by a bank and two trade associations (collectively “plaintiffs”), aims to prevent the CFPB from enforcing its new final rule, implementing section 1071 of the CPA, which would require financial institutions to collect and provide to the Bureau data on lending to small businesses (covered by InfoBytes here). A 2022 5th Circuit ruling (covered by an Orrick Special Alert here) in a different suit, however, deemed the CFPB’s funding structure unconstitutional.
Plaintiffs urged the 5th Circuit to enjoin enforcement of the small business lending rule pending Supreme Court resolution of the constitutionality of the CFPB’s funding structure, estimating that the burden of complying with the final rule would be $100,000 per community bank, and “the nonrecoverable costs of complying with an invalid regulation constitute irreparable harm,” among other things. The court held that the plaintiff bank had standing because its injury is imminent and not speculative based on the effective date of the final rule, and the costs of preparation for compliance. The court also held that there is a “substantial likelihood” that the plaintiffs would prevail in asserting the final rule is invalid based on the claim that the Bureau’s funding is unconstitutional. The court agreed with plaintiffs’ claim that the costs of compliance with the final rule are “more than de minimis and thus constitute irreparable harm,” despite the CFPB’s argument that the costs of compliance would not be incurred now. Finally, the court held that the CFPB failed to show any evidence that a stay of the final rule will cause harm. While the court entered an injunction, it limited it to the plaintiffs and their members, declining to enter a nationwide injunction as requested by plaintiffs, because “generic reasons such as ‘nationwide scope’ or ‘need for uniformity’ without more are insufficient.”
The final rule is scheduled to go into effect on August 29.
On August 1, the SBA announced implementation of additional policies aimed at expanding small business’ access to capital by modernizing SBA’s signature 7(a) and 504 Loan Programs. The new simplified guidelines for lenders include updated origination policies and procedures, lender participation requirements, and 7(a) loan servicing and liquidation requirements. SBA has also clarified affiliation standards to effectively communicate who qualifies for SBA loans, will use technology updates to bring eligibility determinations in-house, and will also use advanced data analytics and third-party data checks for fraud review on all loan programs before approval.
The following three SBA SOPs took effect on August 1, bringing many of the new policies into practice:
- SOP 50 10 7: Lender and Development Company Loan Programs: Contains SBA’s policies and procedures governing the 7(a) and 504 loan programs.
- SOP 50 56: Lender participation requirements: Contains the criteria for becoming an SBA Lender.
- SOP 50 57: 7(a) Loan Servicing and Liquidation: Contains the policies and procedures for 7(a) loan servicing and liquidation.
Finally, the SBA will begin accepting the Universal Purchase Package, a new feature that is expected to streamline the process for lenders to request SBA honor its loan guaranty. SBA will also introduce new features in E-TRAN, SBA’s online platform used by lenders to upload loan applications.