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  • FFIEC releases 2021 HMDA data

    Federal Issues

    On June 16, the Federal Financial Institutions Examinations Council (FFIEC) released the 2021 HMDA data on mortgage lending transactions at 4,338 covered institutions (a decline from the 4,475 reporting institutions in 2020). Available data products include: (i) the Snapshot National Loan-Level Dataset, which contains national HMDA datasets as of May 1, 2022; (ii) the HMDA Dynamic National Loan-Level Dataset, which is updated on a weekly basis to reflect late submissions and resubmissions; (iii) the Aggregate and Disclosure Reports, which provide summaries on individual institutions and geographies; (vi) the HMDA Data Browser where users can customize tables and download datasets for further analysis; and (v) the Modified Loan/Application Register for filers of 2021 HMDA data.

    The 2021 data includes information on 23.3 million home loan applications, of which 21.1 million were closed-end and 1.8 million were open-end. The Snapshot revealed that an additional 350,000 records were from financial institutions making use of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act’s partial exemptions that did not designate whether the records were closed-end or open-end. Observations from the data relative to the prior year include: (i) the percentage of mortgages originated by non-depository, independent mortgage companies increased, accounting for “63.9 percent of first lien, one- to four-family, site-built, owner-occupied home-purchase loans, up from 60.7 percent in 2020”; (ii) the percentage of closed-end home purchase loans for first lien, one- to four-family, site-built, owner-occupied properties made to Black or African American borrowers increased from 7.3 percent in 2020 to 7.9 percent in 2021, while the share of these loans made to Hispanic-White borrowers increased slightly from 9.1 percent to 9.2 percent and the share made to Asian borrowers jumped from 5.5 percent to 7.1 percent; and (iii) “Black or African American and Hispanic-White applicants experienced denial rates for first lien, one- to four-family, site-built, owner-occupied conventional, closed-end home purchase loans of 15.7 percent and 9.8 percent respectively, while the denial rates for Asian and non-Hispanic-White applicants were 7.5 percent and 5.6 percent respectively.”

    Federal Issues Bank Regulatory CFPB Mortgages HMDA Consumer Finance FFIEC EGRRCPA

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  • FHFA orders stress tests for Fannie and Freddie

    Federal Issues

    On March 16, FHFA published orders applicable March 10 for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (GSEs) with respect to stress test reporting as of December 31, 2021, under Dodd-Frank as amended by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act. Under Dodd-Frank, certain federally regulated financial companies with total consolidated assets of more than $250 billion are required to conduct periodic stress tests to determine whether the companies have the capital necessary to absorb losses as a result of severely adverse economic conditions. The orders are accompanied by Summary Instructions and Guidance, which include stress test scenarios and revised templates (baseline, severely adverse, and variables and assumptions) for regulated companies to use when reporting the results of the stress tests (orders and instructions are available here). According to the Summary Instructions and Guidance, the GSEs have until May 20 to submit baseline and severely adverse results to FHFA and the Federal Reserve Board, and must publicly disclose a summary of severely adverse results between August 1 and 15.

    Federal Issues FHFA Fannie Mae Freddie Mac GSEs Mortgages Stress Test Dodd-Frank EGRRCPA

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  • CFPB publishes fall 2021 rulemaking agenda

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On December 13, the Office of Information And Regulatory Affairs released the CFPB’s fall 2021 rulemaking agenda. According to a Bureau announcement, the information released represents regulatory matters the Bureau plans to pursue during the period from November 2, 2021 to October 31, 2022. Additionally, the Bureau stated that the latest agenda reflects continued rulemakings intended to further its consumer financial protection mission and help advance the country’s economic recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic. Promoting racial and economic equity and supporting underserved and marginalized communities’ access to fair and affordable credit continue to be Bureau priorities.

    Key rulemaking initiatives include:

    • Small Business Rulemaking. This fall, the Bureau issued its long-awaited proposed rule (NPRM) for Section 1071 regulations, which would require a broad swath of lenders to collect data on loans they make to small businesses, including information about the loans themselves, the characteristics of the borrower, and demographic information regarding the borrower’s principal owners. (Covered by a Buckley Special Alert.) The NPRM comment period goes through January 6, 2022, after which point the Bureau will review comments as it moves to develop a final rule. Find continuing Section 1071 coverage here.
    • Consumer Access to Financial Records. The Bureau noted that it is working on rulemaking to implement Section 1033 of Dodd-Frank in order to address the availability of electronic consumer financial account data. The Bureau is currently reviewing comments received in response to an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) issued fall 2020 regarding consumer data access (covered by InfoBytes here). Additionally, the Bureau stated it is monitoring the market to consider potential next steps, “including whether a Small Business Review Panel is required pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act.”
    • Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Financing. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the Bureau published an ANPR in March 2019 seeking feedback on the unique features of PACE financing and the general implications of regulating PACE financing under TILA (as required by Section 307 of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act, which amended TILA to mandate that the Bureau issue certain regulations relating to PACE financing). The Bureau noted that it continues “to engage with stakeholders and collect information for the rulemaking, including by pursuing quantitative data on the effect of PACE on consumers’ financial outcomes.”
    • Automated Valuation Models (AVM). Interagency rulemaking is currently being pursued by the Bureau, Federal Reserve Board, OCC, FDIC, NCUA, and FHFA to develop regulations for AVM quality control standards as required by Dodd-Frank amendments to FIRREA. The standards are designed to, among other things, “ensure a high level of confidence in the estimates produced by the valuation models, protect against the manipulation of data, seek to avoid conflicts of interest, require random sample testing and reviews,” and account for any other appropriate factors. An NPRM is anticipated for June 2022.
    • Amendments to Regulation Z to Facilitate LIBOR Transition. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the Bureau issued a final rule on December 7 to facilitate the transition from LIBOR for consumer financial products, including “adjustable-rate mortgages, credit cards, student loans, reverse mortgages, [and] home equity lines of credit,” among others. The final rule amended Regulation Z, which implements TILA, to generally address LIBOR’s eventual cessation for most U.S. dollar settings in June 2023, and establish requirements for how creditors must select replacement indices for existing LIBOR-linked consumer loans. The final rule generally takes effect April 1, 2022.
    • Reviewing Existing Regulations. The Bureau noted in its announcement that it decided to conduct an assessment of a rule implementing HMDA (most of which took effect January 2018), and referred to a notice and request for comments issued last month (covered by InfoBytes here), which solicited public comments on its plans to assess the effectiveness of the HMDA Rule. Additionally, the Bureau stated that it finished a review of Regulation Z rules implementing the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009, and that “[a]fter considering the statutory review factors and public comments,” it “determined that the CARD Act rules should continue without change.”

    Notably, there are 14 rulemaking activities that are listed as inactive on the fall 2021 agenda, including rulemakings on overdraft services, consumer reporting, student loan servicing, Regulation E modernization, abusive acts and practices, loan originator compensation, and TILA/RESPA mortgage disclosure integration.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance CFPB Covid-19 Small Business Lending Section 1071 Consumer Finance PACE Programs AVMs Dodd-Frank Section 1033 Regulation Z LIBOR HMDA RESPA TILA CARES Act Debt Collection EGRRCPA Federal Reserve OCC FDIC NCUA FHFA Bank Regulatory FIRREA CARD Act

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  • CFPB finalizes Regulation Z HPML escrow exemptions

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On January 19, the CFPB issued a final rule amending Regulation Z, as required by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act, to exempt certain insured depository institutions and credit unions from the requirement to establish escrow accounts for certain higher-priced mortgage loans (HPMLs). Under the final rule, any loan made by an insured depository institution or credit union that is secured by a first lien on the principal dwelling of a consumer would be exempt from Regulation Z’s HPML escrow requirement if (i) the institution has assets of no more than $10 billion; (ii) “the institution and its affiliates originated 1,000 or fewer loans secured by a first lien on a principal dwelling during the preceding calendar year”; and (iii) the institution meets certain existing HPML escrow exemption criteria. The final rule essentially adopts the proposed rule (covered by InfoBytes here) without change, except the end date for the exception to the prerequisite against maintaining escrows is finalized as 120 days after the date of publication in the Federal Register, instead of the 90 days as proposed.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance CFPB Regulation Z HPML Escrow Mortgages EGRRCPA

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  • Fed’s final rule modifies assessment fees for large financial companies

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On November 19, the Federal Reserve Board issued a final rule modifying the annual assessment fees for its supervision and regulation of large financial companies. The final rule is nearly identical to the proposal issued in November 2019, covered by InfoBytes here. The final rule raises the minimum threshold from $50 billion to $100 billion in total consolidated assets to be considered an assessed company and adjusts the amount charged to assessed companies, as required by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act. The final rule will be effective 30 days after publication in the Federal Register.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Federal Reserve Fees EGRRCPA

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  • CFPB issues proposed rule on Regulation Z HPML escrow exemptions

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On July 2, the CFPB issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Regulation Z, as required by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act, and exempt certain insured depository institutions and credit unions from the requirement to establish escrow accounts for certain higher-priced mortgage loans (HPMLs). Under the proposed amendment, any loan made by an insured depository institution or credit union that is secured by a first lien on the principal dwelling of a consumer would be exempt from Regulation Z’s HPML escrow requirement if (i) the institution has assets of no more than $10 billion; (ii) “the institution and its affiliates originated 1,000 or fewer loans secured by a first lien on a principal dwelling during the preceding calendar year”; and (iii) the institution meets certain existing HPML escrow exemption criteria. Comments on the NPRM will be accepted for 60 days following publication in the Federal Register.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance CFPB Escrow Mortgages Regulation Z TILA EGRRCPA

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  • CFPB releases spring 2020 rulemaking agenda

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On June 30, the CFPB released its spring 2020 rulemaking agenda. According to a Bureau announcement, the information details the regulatory matters that the Bureau “expect[s] to focus on” between May 1, 2020 and April 30, 2021. The announcement notes that the agenda was set before the Covid-19 pandemic struck and while the Bureau “continues to move forward with other regulatory work,” it will prioritize work related to supporting consumers and the financial sector during and after the Covid-19 pandemic.

    In addition to the rulemaking activities already completed by the Bureau in May and June of this year, the agenda highlights other regulatory activities planned, including:

    • Escrow Rulemaking. The Bureau intends to issue a proposed rule to implement Section 108 of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act of 2018, which directs the Bureau to exempt certain loans made by creditors with assets of $10 billion or less (and that meet other criteria) from the escrow requirements applicable to higher-priced mortgage loans.
    • Small Business Rulemaking. The Bureau states that in September 2020, it will publicly release materials for an October panel (convening under the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act) with small entities likely to be directly affected by the Bureau’s rule to implement Section 1071 of Dodd-Frank.
    • HMDA. The Bureau states that two rulemakings are planned, including (i) a proposed rule that follows up on a May 2019 advanced notice of proposed rulemaking which sought information on the costs and benefits of reporting certain data points under HMDA and coverage of certain business or commercial purpose loans (covered by InfoBytes here); and (ii) a proposed rule addressing the public disclosure of HMDA data.
    • Debt Collection. The Bureau intends to release the final rule amending Regulation F to implement the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act in October 2020 (InfoBytes coverage of the May 2019 proposed rule here). Additionally, “at a later date” the Bureau intends to finalize the February supplemental proposal, which covers time-barred debt disclosures (covered by a Buckley Special Alert here).
    • Qualified Mortgages (QM). The Bureau states it is considering issuing a proposed rule “later this year” that would create a new “seasoning” definition of a QM under Regulation Z, allowing for QM status after the borrower has made consistent timely payments for a defined period.

    Additionally, in its announcement, the Bureau notes that it is (i) participating in an interagency rulemaking process on quality control standards for automated valuation models (AVMs) with regard to appraisals; and (ii) continuing to review and conduct the five-year lookback assessments under Section 1022(d) of Dodd-Frank.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance CFPB Rulemaking Agenda HMDA Small Business Lending Regulation Z Debt Collection ECOA Escrow EGRRCPA Mortgages

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  • VA issues guidance for noncompliant interest rate reduction refinance loans

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On April 20, the Veterans Benefits Administration (VA) issued Circular 26-20-16, which provides guidance for noncompliant interest rate reduction refinance loans (IRRRLs). The guidance notes that the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (the Act) provides statutory criteria that affect whether the VA can guarantee refinance loans. In VA Circular 26-19-22, the VA notified lenders that an IRRRL must meet the requirements of the Act to receive and retain the full amount of VA’s guarantee. As such, Circular 26-20-16 sets forth requirements for IRRRLs, including enterprise level reporting and loan level reporting. The circular also discusses loan seasoning issues and the VA’s oversight of lender actions. The circular is rescinded April 1, 2023.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Department of Veterans Affairs IRRRL EGRRCPA Consumer Lending Refinance

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  • FHFA final rule amends stress testing requirements

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On March 24, the FHFA published a final rule amending its stress testing requirements consistent with changes made by section 401 of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act. The final rule adopts amendments proposed last December (covered by InfoBytes here) without change, increasing the minimum threshold for FHFA-regulated entities to conduct stress tests from $10 billion to $250 billion in total consolidated assets, removing the requirements for Federal Home Loan Banks to conduct stress tests, and reducing the number of stress test scenarios from three to two by removing the “adverse” scenario. The final rule took effect March 24.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance FHFA Stress Test EGRRCPA FHLB

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  • OCC updates PTFA booklet in Comptroller’s Handbook

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On March 2, the OCC announced an update to the Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act booklet of the Comptroller’s Handbook. The revised booklet is intended to provide examiners with information and procedures concerning foreclosure activities and related consumer protections under the Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act of 2009 (PTFA). Among other things, the booklet provides a summary of requirements and addresses risks associated with a bank’s compliance with PTFA. The OCC notes that the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act made permanent certain sections of PTFA, and states that the applicable provisions “apply to any immediate successor in interest—including banks—that foreclose on a federally related mortgage loan or on any dwelling or residential real property, as defined in section 3 of [RESPA], that is subject to a bona fide lease, as defined in the PTFA and in 12 USC 2602.”

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance OCC Foreclosure Tenant Rights EGRRCPA Comptroller's Handbook RESPA PTFA

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