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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations


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  • Preliminary Observations Regarding CFPB's Final Mortgage Disclosure Rule And Forms


    **Update – The CFPB has now released the final rule and related materials, available here.**

    Later today, as anticipated, the CFPB will release its final rule combining the TILA and RESPA mortgage disclosure forms and rules.  We will review the final forms and rule, monitor the related field hearing, and prepare a preliminary Special Alert followed by a more detailed summary.

    The final rule and forms follow two years of drafting, testing, and revision by the Bureau.  According to the Bureau, its testing demonstrates that the new forms significantly improve the ability of consumers with a variety of experience levels and loan types to answer questions about their loans, compare competing loans, and compare estimated and final loan terms and costs.

    The text of the final rule will not be available until later today.  However, we are able to make several preliminary observations based on our review of the materials made available thus far, perhaps most importantly that industry will have until August 1, 2015 to make the changes to systems and training necessary to implement the new forms, which is longer than anticipated.  Additional observations follow.

    Loan Estimate Disclosure

    • The new Loan Estimate will combine the disclosures currently provided in the Good Faith Estimate and the initial Truth in Lending statement.
    • It appears that the final rule will require lenders to provide the Loan Estimate three business days after an application is submitted by a consumer, excluding days that the lender is not open (e.g., Saturdays).  However, it is not clear based from materials available thus far when a consumer has submitted sufficient information to constitute an “application.”
    • The design and layout of the Loan Estimate does not appear to differ substantially from the proposed form, except that estimated closing costs and estimated cash to close are now disclosed in separate rows on the bottom of page 1.  The CFPB also states that it modified the forms to include checkboxes to tell consumers whether they are receiving or paying cash at closing and to provide a streamlined calculation of that amount.
    • Owner’s title insurance is listed as “optional” on page 2.  During a recent House Financial Services Committee hearing with CFPB Director Cordray, two committee members–Reps. Miller (R-CA) and Perlmutter (D-CO)–expressed concern that identifying this cost as optional would not serve consumers’ best interests.
    • The Total Interest Percentage (TIP) disclosure, which was required by the Dodd-Frank Act and opposed by industry, has been retained on page 3.
    • The Annual Percentage Rate (APR) appears on page 3, despite requests by consumer advocates that it appear in a prominent location on the first page.  In addition, it appears that the Bureau did not adopt the proposal to revise the APR calculation to include more items in the finance charge and thereby potentially increase the number of loans that would fail the Qualified Mortgage’s points-and-fees test or would be treated as “high cost” or “higher priced.”
    • It is unclear from the materials provided what changes, if any, will be made to the restrictions on changes in costs (or tolerances) imposed by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in 2010.  It is also unclear whether, under the final rule, TILA or RESPA liability will apply to violations of those restrictions.

    Closing Disclosure

    • The Closing Disclosure will combine the disclosures currently provided in the HUD-1 settlement statement and any revised Truth in Lending statement.
    • It appears that the final rule will require the lender to ensure that the consumer receive the Closing Disclosure three business days before closing.  This would mean that the lender must be able to demonstrate that the consumer received the Closing Disclosure three business days before closing.
    • The CFPB materials indicate that, in comparison to the proposal that changes to the information provided in the Closing Disclosure generally require re-disclosure and an additional three business day waiting period before closing, the final rule limits the additional waiting period to situations in which there is a substantial change in the APR, a change in the loan product, or the addition of a prepayment penalty.
    • It is unclear from the materials provided what role, if any, the settlement agent will play in the preparation of the Closing Disclosure and whether TILA or RESPA liability will apply.
    • Like the final Loan Estimate, the design and layout of the final Closing Disclosure do not appear to differ substantially from the proposed form, except for the changes noted above.
    • In addition, the final Closing Disclosure, like the proposed form, eliminates the HUD-1 line numbers.  The final Closing Disclosure also eliminates the Average Cost of Funds (ACF) disclosure, which was added by the Dodd-Frank Act but opposed by industry.

    Other Issues

    • It appears that the CFPB has not adopted the proposed requirement that lenders retain records in an electronic, machine-readable format.  Instead, the CFPB will work with the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to create a data standard based on the Closing Disclosure.

    For additional background, please review our report on the rule as proposed.

    CFPB TILA Mortgage Origination RESPA Compliance Disclosures

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  • CFPB Mortgage Disclosure Rule Now Expected on November 20, 2013


    On November 1, the CFPB announced a field hearing on “Know Before You Owe: Mortgages,” to be held on Wednesday, November 20 at 11 a.m. EST in Boston. In conjunction with the hearing, the Bureau is expected to release its long-awaited final rule combining the Good Faith Estimate and HUD-1 with the mortgage disclosures under the Truth in Lending Act.

    The CFPB has stated that the event will feature remarks from CFPB Director Richard Cordray, as well as testimony from consumer groups, industry representatives, and members of the public. The final rule, which was originally expected in October, will not only replace the forms that consumers receive during the mortgage origination process but will also fundamentally alter the regulations governing the preparation and provision of – and liability for – those disclosures. As a result, lenders, settlement agents, and service providers will be required to make extensive changes to their systems, compliance programs, and contractual relationships.

    In September, BuckleySandler hosted a webinar covering the key issues in this rulemaking and discussing what industry can do to start preparing now. The webinar featured a discussion with Jeff Naimon, who has spent years assisting the industry with the existing forms. Please contact Jeff for a copy of the webinar materials or with any questions about the expected rule.

    CFPB TILA Mortgage Origination RESPA Compliance Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

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  • SEC Announces Compliance Penalties Against Investment Advisory Firms, Executives


    On October 23, the SEC announced penalties totaling $400,000 against three investment advisory firms and their executives for allegedly repeatedly ignoring problems with their compliance programs, which the SEC deemed inadequate to prevent misleading statements in marketing materials or inadvertent overbilling of clients. The penalties ranged from $25,000 for individuals to $100,000 for one of the firms. Among other things, the SEC highlighted the following deficiencies, which varied among the firms: (i) failing to complete annual compliance reviews, (ii) making misleading statements on company’s website and investor brochures by overstating the amount of assets under management while contradicting the amount the firm presented in its SEC filing, (iii) failing to adopt and implement written compliance policies and procedures, (iv) making false and misleading disclosures about historical performance, compensation, and conflicts of interest, (v) repeatedly over- and under-billing clients, (vi) failing to disclose known compliance deficiencies to potential clients in response due diligence questionnaires or requests for proposals, (vii) inflating the amounts of assets under management in SEC filings, and (viii) improperly removing and retaining nonpublic personal client information by an executive who left one of the firms. In addition to agreeing to the penalties, the firms agreed to hire compliance consultants and adopt specific compliance enhancements. The SEC took the actions as part of its Compliance Program Initiative, which targets firms that fail to effectively act upon SEC warnings about compliance deficiencies.

    SEC Compliance Investment Adviser Enforcement

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  • CFPB Director Discusses Mortgage Rule Implementation And Enforcement Against Individuals

    Consumer Finance

    On October 23, CFPB Director Richard Cordray briefly spoke with the Reuters Washington Summit about the Bureau’s rulemaking and enforcement work.

    Upcoming Effective Dates for Mortgage Rules

    According to the report, Cordray stated that he was confident most mortgage lenders would be able to comply with the new mortgage rules by the January 2014 effective dates. "Everybody's had plenty of time to see this coming," Cordray said. However, he added that the Bureau would take into consideration that some smaller firms would need more time to fully comply. "What we're looking for come January 10 is that they've made good-faith efforts to come into substantial compliance with the rules," he said.

    Enforcement Actions Against Individuals

    Corday also stated that the Bureau would continue to take enforcement action against individual officers and employees, as well as banks and other entities. "I've always felt strongly that you can't only go after companies. Companies run through individuals, and individuals need to know that they're at risk when they do bad things under the umbrella of a company," Cordray said.

    The CFPB already has pursued individuals in several civil litigation matters. For example, the CFPB has named individuals in actions to enforce Section 8 of RESPA, including a lawsuit announced just this week against principals of a law firm. In July, the CFPB announced an enforcement action against a Utah-based mortgage company and two of its officers for giving bonuses to loan officers who allegedly steered consumers into mortgages with higher interest rates.

    CFPB Mortgage Origination Mortgage Servicing Compliance Enforcement Qualified Mortgage

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  • Federal Reserve Board Announces BSA/AML Compliance Action

    Consumer Finance

    On October 17, the Federal Reserve Board released a cease and desist order against a foreign bank and its New York branch over alleged BSA/AML compliance failures. After entering into a Written Agreement in June 2012 that required the branch to improve compliance with BSA/AML in connection with the branch’s bulk cash transactions business line, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York conducted an examination to assess the effectiveness of the branch’s BSA/AML compliance program in other business lines. This examination identified an alleged failure of the branch to maintain an adequate risk-based compliance program to mitigate the BSA/AML risks associated with the branch’s foreign correspondent accounts.   The order requires the bank and the branch to (i) retain an independent consultant to assess, and prepare a compliance report on, the branch’s compliance with the BSA/AML requirements, (ii) submit an enhanced BSA/AML compliance program, (iii) submit an enhanced customer due diligence program and an enhanced suspicious activity reporting program, and (iv) retain an independent consultant to conduct a suspicious activity review of U.S. dollar transactions cleared over a six month period in 2012. In addition, the bank’s board and the branch management must jointly submit a written management oversight plan.

    Federal Reserve Anti-Money Laundering Bank Secrecy Act Compliance

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    On October 15, the CFPB issued an interim final rule amending certain provisions of its mortgage servicing rules and making technical changes to other January 2013 mortgage rules (the Interim Amendments). As explained in our Special Alert, the amendments address issues raised by bankruptcy trustees and industry about the incompatibility of the servicing rules with protections afforded to consumers by bankruptcy law and the FDCPA. The CFPB also issued a bulletin providing guidance on other aspects of the servicing rules and an advisory opinion on the interaction between the rules and the FDCPA. In addition, on October 16, CFPB staff provided unofficial oral guidance on specific questions about the mortgage servicing rules in a webinar hosted by the Mortgage Bankers Association.  BuckleySandler attorneys attended the webinar and can address any questions you may have.

    Like the mortgage servicing rules, the Interim Amendments will take effect on January 10, 2014. The CFPB issued the Interim Amendments without advance notice and public comment because of the impending effective date. The public will have 30 days to provide comments after publication of the amendments in the Federal Register (which has not yet occurred). After the comment period, the CFPB may make adjustments to the Interim Amendments before adopting them in final form.

    Questions regarding the matters discussed in this Special Alert may be directed to any of our lawyers listed below, or to any other BuckleySandler attorney with whom you have consulted in the past.


    CFPB Mortgage Servicing Compliance

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  • New York Adopts Regulation Regarding Determination of Subprime Home Loans


    On September 30, the New York Department of Financial Services (NY DFS) advised supervised institutions that it adopted emergency regulations to determine if a home loan qualifies as a subprime home loan under Section 6-m of the New York Banking Law. The NY DFS determined that recent changes to the calculation of mortgage insurance premiums mandated by the Federal Housing Administration in Mortgagee Letter 2013-04, which increased the annual percentage rate on subject loans, effectively decreased the threshold on certain loans and limited the availability of mortgage credit in New York. In response, the emergency regulations adjust the subprime threshold up by 75 basis points for most FHA-insured loans. The change took effect immediately.

    Mortgage Origination Compliance FHA

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  • Special Alert: HUD Proposes Its Own QM Rule


    On September 27, HUD released a proposal defining what constitutes a “qualified mortgage” (QM) for purposes of loans insured by the FHA. We have prepared a Special Alert regarding this proposal, which, once it is finalized and takes effect, will replace the temporary QM definition for FHA loans established by the CFPB in its January 2013 Ability-to-Repay/Qualified Mortgage Rule. QMs, when made in accordance with the applicable requirements, provide lenders with some legal protection against borrower lawsuits under TILA alleging the lender did not sufficiently consider the borrower’s ability to repay the loan.

    The CFPB’s temporary QM definition will continue to apply to loans that are eligible to be guaranteed or insured by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Agriculture until those agencies establish their own QM definitions. Similarly, the CFPB’s temporary QM definition will continue to apply to loans that are eligible to be purchased or guaranteed by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or any successor entity for as long as those entities remain under the conservatorship or receivership of the Federal Housing Finance Authority or until January 10, 2021, whichever is earlier.

    Questions regarding the matters discussed in the Special Alert may be directed to any of our lawyers listed below, or to any other BuckleySandler attorney with whom you have consulted in the past.

    CFPB Mortgage Origination HUD Compliance FHA Qualified Mortgage

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  • CFPB Releases QM Compliance Chart for Small Creditors


    On September 24, the CFPB released an additional mortgage rule implementation resource, entitled the Small Creditor Qualified Mortgages Flowchart. The flowchart walks small creditors through a series of questions to help those institutions determine the types of qualified mortgages they can originate. The chart is included on the CFPB’s broader mortgage rule implementation resources website.

    CFPB Compliance Community Banks Qualified Mortgage

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  • CFPB Issues Report on Examination Findings, Other Supervisory Activities

    Consumer Finance

    This afternoon, the CFPB released its summer 2013 Supervisory Highlights report, which covers supervisory activity from November 2012-June 2013.  This is the second such report the CFPB has released; the first report came out in October 2012 and covered activity from July 2011 through September 2012.

    The report provides a brief review of the CFPB’s public enforcement actions and non-public supervisory actions and developments in the supervision program, including the issuance of bulletins, the issuance of new fair lending examination procedures, and the reorganization of supervision staff. The report also reviews the CFPB’s risk-based approach to examinations, including the “Institution Product Lines” approach, and outlines the factors that influence examination priorities.  The report does not identify any planned supervisory activities.

    The bulk of the report, however, summarizes the CFPB’s examination findings. Key findings are discussed below.

    Compliance Management Systems (CMS)

    • CMS Elements
      • Although the report states no specific CMS structure is required, it also states that, based on the CFPB’s supervisory experience, an effective CMS commonly has the following components:  (i) board and management oversight; (ii) compliance program; (iii) consumer complaint management program; and (iv) independent compliance audit.  The report provides additional discussion on each component.
    • Nonbanks
      • The report states that nonbanks are more likely than banks to lack a robust CMS. The CFPB found one or more instances of nonbanks that lack formal policies and procedures, have not developed a consumer compliance program, or do not conduct independent consumer compliance audits. According to the CFPB, the lack of an effective CMS has, in a number of instances, resulted in violations of Federal consumer financial laws. In these instances, the CFPB has required appropriate corrective action.
      • The report notes that CMS deficiencies in nonbanks are generally related to the supervised entity’s lacking a CMS structure altogether. CFPB examinations have found instances where nonbanks do not have a separate compliance function; rather, compliance is embedded in the business line, which can lead to deficiencies.
    • Banks
      • The CFPB found that banks generally had an adequate CMS structure; however, several institutions lacked one or more of the components of an effective CMS.
      • The most common weakness the CFPB identified in banks is a deficient system of periodic monitoring and independent compliance audits. An entity that lacks periodic monitoring and instead relies on an annual independent compliance audit to identify regulatory violations and CMS deficiencies increases its risk that violations and weaknesses will go undetected for long periods of time, potentially leading to multiple regulatory violations and increased consumer harm.


    Mortgage Servicing

    • Servicing Transfers
      • Examiners found noncompliance with RESPA’s requirement to provide disclosures to consumers about transfers of the servicing of their loans.
      • Examiners also noted lack of controls relating to the review and handling of key documents – such as loan modification applications, trial modification agreements, and other loss mitigation agreements – necessary to ensure the proper transfer of servicing responsibilities for a loan.
      • Examiners noted that one servicer did not review any individual documents that the prior servicer had transferred, such as trial loan modification agreements.
      • At another servicer, examiners determined that documentation the servicer received in the transfer was not organized or labeled, and as a result, the servicer did not utilize loss mitigation information provided to the prior servicer in its loss mitigation efforts.
    • Payment Processing
      • A servicer provided inadequate notice to borrowers of a change in the address to which they should send payments, which constituted a potentially unfair practice impacting thousands of borrowers. The entity acted promptly to ensure that it did not impose late fees or other delinquency fees, or any other negative consequences.
      • A servicer decided – without notice to borrowers – to delay property tax payments from December of one year to January of the next, resulting in the borrowers’ inability to claim a tax deduction for the prior year, which the CFPB cited as an unfair practice.
      • A servicer paid certain property taxes late, in violation of RESPA. The CFPB directed the servicer to pay any fees associated with the late payment and to investigate whether consumers experienced any additional harm as a result of the late payments. Further, at the CFPB’s direction, the servicer will notify consumers of the late payment and solicit information about any additional harm. If any such harm is identified, the servicer will remediate it.
      • Examiners have found violations of the Homeowners Protection Act (HPA) at several servicers. In one examination, examiners found excessive delays in processing borrower requests for private mortgage insurance (PMI) cancellation. Additionally, in cases where PMI was canceled, the servicer improperly handled unearned PMI premiums in violation of the HPA. The CFPB required the servicer to amend its policies and procedures relating to PMI cancellation. The servicer also must conduct a review to determine whether borrowers were subject to additional harm caused by delays in processing PMI cancellations.
      • Examiners identified a servicer that charged consumers default-related fees without adequately documenting the reasons for and amounts of the fees. Examiners also identified situations where servicers mistakenly charged borrowers default-related fees that investors were supposed to pay under investor agreements. Servicers have refunded these fees to borrowers.
    • Loss Mitigation
      • Examiners have found issues related to: (i) inconsistent borrower solicitation and communication; (ii) inconsistent loss mitigation underwriting; (iii) inconsistent waivers of certain fees or interest charges; (iii) long application review periods; (iv) missing denial notices; (v) incomplete and disorganized servicing files; (vi) incomplete written policies and procedures; and (v) lack of quality assurance on underwriting decisions.
      • The CFPB states that weak compliance management surrounding loss mitigation processes creates fair lending risk and that it expects that entities servicing mortgage loans will implement fair lending policies, procedures, and controls to ensure that they are ECOA compliant. The CFPB states that servicers should conduct fair lending training for loss mitigation staff and engage in effective and timely fair lending risk assessments, compliance monitoring, and testing.

    Fair Lending

    • ECOA
      • The report states that some lenders are not complying with various aspects of the adverse action notification requirements under ECOA and Regulation B. The CFPB has found instances where supervised entities violated ECOA and Regulation B by failing to comply with either the provision, content, or timing requirements for adverse action notices and has directed the entities to develop and implement plans to ensure that the appropriate monitoring and internal controls are in place to detect and prevent future violations.
      • The report specifically notes that loan servicers should have systems in place to determine whether borrowers who apply for a change in the terms of credit are entitled to adverse action notices. The CFPB notes that some institutions may find it helpful to arrange for independent, internal reviews of loan files to ensure that the documentation supports the action taken and that all timing requirements are met. In addition, the report states that institutions should provide comprehensive periodic training to management and staff regarding compliance with ECOA and Regulation B, including compliance with provisions on adverse action notices.

    CFPB Nonbank Supervision Mortgage Servicing Fair Lending Compliance Bank Supervision Loss Mitigation

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