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On October 12, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) issued a third draft of proposed regulations implementing the requirements of the commercial financing disclosures required by SB 1235 (Chapter 1011, Statutes of 2018). As previously covered by InfoBytes, in 2018, California enacted SB 1235, which requires non-bank lenders and other finance companies to provide written consumer-style disclosures for certain commercial transactions, including small business loans and merchant cash advances. In July 2019, California released the first draft of the proposed regulations, initiated the formal rulemaking process with the Office of Administrative Law in September 2020, and subsequently released a second round of modifications in August (covered by InfoBytes here, here, and here). The third modifications to the proposed regulations follow a consideration of public comments received on the various iterations of the proposed text. Among other things, the proposed modifications:
- Amend several terms including “approved advance limit,” “approved credit limit,” “at the time of extending a specific commercial financing offer,” “benchmark rate,” “broker,” “provider,” and “recipient funds.”
- Define the term “specific commercial financing offer” to mean a written communication to a recipient related to specific payment amounts and costs of financing, but does not include a recipient’s name, address, or general interest in financing.
- Amend certain disclosure requirements and thresholds, including specific circumstances that a provider can disregard when making calculations and disclosures.
- Clarify APR calculation requirements and tolerances and outline disclosure criteria for specifying the amount of financing used to pay down or pay off other amounts owed by a recipient.
- Amend duties and requirements for financers and brokers.
- Amend criteria for specifying the amount of funding a recipient will receive.
Comments on the third modifications must be received by October 27.
On October 7, the Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) released a report showing significant changes in consumer lending activity, likely attributable to a number of factors including the Covid-19 pandemic, state and federal financial assistance, student loan payment moratoriums, favorable interest rates, and increased reporting of alternative financing products. The 2020 annual report examined unaudited data gathered from finance lenders, brokers, and Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) administrators licensed under the California Financing Law, as well as new data from the “Buy Now, Pay Later” (BNPL) industry. Findings showed, among other things, a sharp decrease in certain types of consumer loans with BNPL products (often interest-free), decreasing overall by 41 percent in 2019. However, the report found that consumer loans, excluding BNPL, increased 94.8 percent during the same period—a result likely caused by an increase in originations of consumer loans secured by real estate. Finance lenders, including BNPL, originated nearly 12 million consumer loans in 2020 (a 530 percent increase over the prior year), with the top six BNPL lenders accounting for 91 percent of the total consumer loans originated in 2020. DFPI noted that a surge in BNPL unsecured consumer loans reported to the regulator shows that BNPL payment options are becoming increasingly popular. DFPI also discussed recent BNPL enforcement actions, which required companies to consider a consumer’s ability to repay a loan and subjected the companies to rate and fee caps.
The report also examined PACE financing data. According to findings, there was an 18 percent decline in the total number of PACE assessment contracts funded and originated in 2020, and a 30 percent decrease in gross income for PACE program administrators since 2019.
On September 22, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) announced its first enforcement action against a California-based debt collector and debt buyer for allegedly violating the California Consumer Financial Protection Law (CCFPL) by threatening to sue consumers and furnishing negative information to a credit bureau without first notifying consumers about the alleged debt—a practice commonly known as “debt parking.” According to DFPI, consumers complained that their credit scores dropped significantly as a result. The respondent also, among other things, allegedly left voicemails that did not disclose the caller’s identity, threatened illegal lawsuits and wage garnishment (even though it never actually commenced any legal proceedings), and failed to notify consumers in writing within 30 days of transmitting negative information to the credit bureau. Under the order, the respondent is required to pay a $375,000 fine and must desist and refrain from unlawful acts or practices associated with the FDCPA, the Rosenthal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, and the Consumer Credit Reporting Agencies Act.
On September 13, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) issued a notice detailing a new requirement that mortgage servicers provide information to DFPI describing the actions servicers are taking to help homeowners avoid foreclosure. According to the announcement, DFPI intends to “ensure that licensees tell consumers about assistance that is or will soon be available to delinquent mortgage borrowers and document their good faith efforts toward screening borrowers for applicable loan modifications, mortgage relief funds and other protections, including the upcoming federal Homeowner Assistance Fund,” which licensees are strongly encouraged to participate in. To protect vulnerable homeowners, DFPI will require licensees handling residential mortgages, either directly or through sub-servicers, to provide information describing the servicer’s: (i) screening process for determining borrower eligibility for foreclosure aid; (ii) compliance policies and procedures regarding loss mitigation; and (iii) assessment of the “magnitude of foreclosure risk among the loans they service.”
The same day, DFPI released a social media campaign designed to educate consumers about the California Homeowner Bill of Rights, the availability of HUD-certified housing counselors, and foreclosure options, among other things. The announcement also notes that DFPI recently launched a multi-pronged communications campaign to educate consumers and protect homeowners from foreclosure.
On September 1, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) announced that all debt collectors operating in California can apply to be licensed by the DFPI, which portrays the initial step in increased state oversight including an assessment of applications, formal examinations, and protections for California consumers. As previously covered by InfoBytes, as required under SB 908, all debt collectors must submit a license application prior to Jan. 1, 2022, to continue operating in California next year and authorizes the DFPI to take in borrowers’ complaints and enforce violations. Debt collectors, debt buyers, and debt collection attorneys operating in the state can submit their license applications here at the Nationwide Multistate Licensing System (NMLS), which requires financial and other information electronically, starting September 1. The announcement notes that, “[a]ny debt collector collecting debt in the state of California must submit an application on or before Friday, Dec. 31, 2021.” When a debt collector has submitted an application, “they may continue operating as a debt collector in California while the application is pending,” according to the DFPI. However, the applicant will be required to wait for the issuance of a license prior to continuing operations in the state if an application is submitted after December 31.
On August 19, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) issued an invitation for comments on a proposed second rulemaking (NPRM) under the Debt Collection Licensing Act (the Act). As previously covered by InfoBytes, in 2020, California enacted the Act, which requires a person engaging in the business of debt collecting in the state, as defined by the Act, to be licensed and provides for the regulation and oversight of debt collectors by DFPI. Earlier in April, DFPI issued an NPRM to adopt new debt collector licensing requirements (covered by InfoBytes here). The most recent NPRM, among other things, seeks further input from stakeholders on topics related to:
- The scope of the Act as related to several definitions, including “debt,” “debt collection,” “person,” “consumer credit transaction,” “debt collector,” and “debt buyer,” to determine if additional clarity is necessary and whether these definitions are the same as those in California’s Rosenthal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (Rosenthal Act) and the Fair Debt Buying Practices Act (FDBPA).
- Whether certain terms related to definition of a debt collector, such as “engage in the business of debt collection,” “in the ordinary course of business,” or “regularly,” require clarifying regulations.
- Whether additional clarification is needed concerning entities or transactions exempt from the Act’s requirements.
- Whether the term “due or owing” is clear with respect to the definition of a “debtor.”
- Whether additional clarification is needed regarding DFPI’s authority to enforce the Rosenthal Act and the FDBPA. Under the Act, DFPI has the “authority to enforce the Rosenthal Act and the FDBPA against persons required to be licensed under the [Act] and persons expressly exempt from licensure, including certain federally regulated entities.”
The NPRM also addresses certain provisions related to annual reports and bond amounts. Comments on the most recent proposed rulemaking are due October 5, and may be sent electronically to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Recently, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) released several new opinion letters covering aspects of the California Money Transmission Act (MTA) related to virtual currency and agent of payee rules. Highlights from the redacted letters include:
- Agent of Payee – Fund Transfers in Connection with Real Estate Closing Transactions. The redacted opinion letter reviewed whether a company—licensed as a money transmitter in several states, including California, and registered with FinCEN as a money services business—is eligible for the agent-of-payee exemption under the MTA. The company proposes to “facilitate fund transfers in connection with real estate closing transactions” during which it “will be authorized to receive real estate closing funds on behalf of its customer (the seller of real estate).” The payment funds will first flow from the buyer of real estate to the company via the buyer’s lawyer or title company, and then from the company to the seller after the company converts the funds from U.S. dollars to another currency. By providing these services, the company, as the seller’s agent, will receive money from the buyer pursuant to a preexisting written contract between the company and the seller. DFPI concluded that “[t]o the extent these fund transfers take place in California or are with, to, or from persons located in California, [the company’s] services constitute “receiving money for transmission” because [the company] receives money from the buyer for transfer to the seller.” However, DFPI noted that a provision in the written contract, which appoints the company as the agent of the seller when the seller is located in California, allows the company’s services to satisfy the requirements of the agent-of-payee exemption in Financial Code section 2010, subdivision (l). The agent-of-payee exemption, DFPI stressed though, does not apply to sellers outside of California.
- Bitcoin ATM Kiosk. Two redacted opinion letters (see here and here) examined whether the sale and purchase of bitcoin through ATMs/kiosks described by the companies is subject to licensure under the MTA. In each instance, the transaction will only be between the consumer using the ATM/kiosk and the company, the transaction will be completed instantly without involving third parties, and any bitcoin sold will be provided from the company’s own inventory. Moreover, the letters state that the companies do not hold virtual currency on behalf of customers nor do they act in a fiduciary capacity. Because the companies’ activities are limited to selling bitcoin, DFPI determined that an MTA license is not required because the activities “do not involve the sale or issuance of a payment instrument, the sale or issuance of stored value, or receiving money for transmission.” DFPI reminded the companies that its determination is limited to the activities specified in the letters and does not relieve them from any FinCEN, federal, or state regulatory obligations.
Recently, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) reminded licensees and Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program administrators that new final regulations under the California Financing Law (CFL) will take effect October 1. According to DFPI’s final statement of reasons, the regulations, among other things, amend existing licensing rules to transition all licensees under the CFL to registration through the Nationwide Multistate Licensing System (NMLS). New CFL license applications must be submitted through the NMLS on or after October 1, while existing licensees not yet on the NMLS must transition to the system by December 31. Additionally, the final regulations implement AB 1284, which was signed into law in 2017 and, among other things, requires a private entity that administers a PACE program on behalf of a public agency to be licensed under the CFL (covered by InfoBytes here). These private PACE program administrators must also comply with several new regulatory provisions, including those related to advertising standards and disclosures. Additional information for licensees transitioning to NMLS can be accessed through DFPI’s FAQs.
On August 18, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) released a new invitation for comments on proposed rulemaking to implement the California Consumer Financial Protection Law (CCFPL). As previously covered by InfoBytes, last September the California governor signed AB 1864, which enacts the CCFPL and authorizes DFPI to establish rules relating to the covered persons, service providers, and consumer financial products or services outlined in the law. The newest invitation for comments builds on responses to initial comments received from a request for comments made in February (covered by InfoBytes here), and seeks comments on draft language implementing certain subdivisions of section 90008 related to consumer complaint regulations.
Among other things, the draft regulations would (i) require covered persons to create a complaint form accessible via their website and at each physical location, as well as maintain a toll-free number for consumers to orally file complaints; (ii) outline instructions for how covered persons must investigate and respond to complaints, including tracking complaints and communicating with consumers (covered persons will be required to provide written decisions to consumers within 15 calendar days of receiving a complaint); (iii) require covered persons to maintain a written record of each complaint for a minimum of five years from the date the complaint was initially filed; (iv) prohibit discrimination during the complaint process on any basis prohibited by law; (v) require complaint reports to be filed quarterly with DFPI describing the volume and types of complaints; (vi) outline requirements for determining whether a consumer inquiry should be handled as a complaint; and (viii) define nonpublic or confidential information. Comments on the draft regulations must be received by September 17.
On August 9, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) issued a second draft of proposed regulations implementing the requirements of the commercial financing disclosures required by SB 1235 (Chapter 1011, Statutes of 2018). As previously covered by InfoBytes, in 2018, California enacted SB 1235, which requires non-bank lenders and other finance companies to provide written consumer-style disclosures for certain commercial transactions, including small business loans and merchant cash advances. In July 2019, California released the first draft of the proposed regulations, and last September, California initiated the formal rulemaking process with the Office of Administrative Law (covered by InfoBytes here and here). The second modifications to the proposed regulations follow a consideration of public comments received on the initial proposed text, as well as additional comments received on modifications made to the proposed text in April. Among other things, the proposed modifications (i) amend several terms including “approved advance limit,” “approved credit limit,” and “amount financed”; (ii) clarify the definition of “at the time of extending a specific commercial financing offer”; (iii) replace the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate as one of the benchmark rate options; (iv) add several terms including “broker,” “recipient funds,” “average monthly cost,” “estimated monthly cost,” and “prepaid finance charge”; (v) provide that for disclosure purposes, “a provider shall assume that there are 30 days in every month and 360 days in a year” and specify that the annual percentage rate must be expressed to the nearest ten basis points; (vi) amend certain disclosure requirements and thresholds; (vii) clarify methods for estimating monthly sales, income, or receipt projections for sales-based financing; (viii) amend duties and requirements for financers and brokers; and (ix) clarify APR calculation requirements and tolerances and outline disclosure criteria for specifying the amount of funding a recipient will receive.
Comments on the second modifications must be received by August 24.
- Daniel R. Alonso to moderate an interactive roundtable at the Latin Lawyer and GIR Connect: Anti-Corruption & Investigations Conference
- APPROVED Checkpoint Webcast: You have license renewal questions, we have answers
- Jonice Gray Tucker to discuss “Fintech trends” at the BIHC Network Elevating Black Excellence Regional Summit
- Jeffrey P. Naimon to discuss "Truth in lending” at the American Bar Association National Institute on Consumer Financial Services Basics
- Daniel R. Alonso to discuss anti-money-laundering at FELABAN Spanish-language webinar “Perspective for banks: LAFT, FINCEN, OFAC, Cryptocurrency”
- Daniel R. Alonso to discuss "What’s new in BSA/AML compliance?" at the Institute of International Bankers Regulatory Compliance Seminar
- Jon David D. Langlois to discuss "Regulatory update: What you need to know under the new boss; It won’t be the same as the old boss" at the IMN Residential Mortgage Service Rights Forum (East)
- Benjamin B. Klubes to discuss “Creating a Fantastic Workplace Culture”
- John R. Coleman and Amanda R. Lawrence to discuss “Consumer financial services government enforcement actions – The CFPB and beyond” at the Government Investigations & Civil Litigation Institute Annual Meeting
- Jonice Gray Tucker to discuss "Consumer financial services" at the Practising Law Institute Banking Law Institute
- Jonice Gray Tucker to discuss “Regulators always ring twice: Responding to a government request” at ALM Legalweek