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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations


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  • District Court grants motion for summary judgment to DFPI in commercial financing disclosure case


    On December 4, the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California granted the California DFPI’s motion for summary judgment which challenged the DFPI’s commercial financing regulations. According to the DFPI’s press release, the proposed regulations would require commercial financing providers to disclose key metrics to small businesses to help them understand their financing options, including the amount of funding provided, APR, finance charge, and payment amounts.

    In their complaint, the plaintiffs argued that the regulations violated the First Amendment and were preempted by TILA. The court disagreed, holding that (1) the regulations do not violate the First Amendment under the test for compelled commercial speech since the required disclosures under the Regulations are “reasonably related” to substantial government interest and are not “unjustified or unduly burdensome”; and (2) because the CFPB made a “rational conclusion” that TILA does not preempt commercial financing regulations, the court would defer to the CFPB’s determination.

    Courts State Issues DFPI California TILA APR Commercial Finance

  • CFPB comments on California DFPI licensing provisions, income-based advances

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On December 1, the CFPB posted a blog entry sharing its comment letter responding to the California DFPI’s notice of proposed rulemaking for “income-based advances” from earlier this year. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the DFPI’s proposed regulations would, among other things, clarify licensing provisions and the applicability of the CFL to certain activities. Within the CFPB’s comment letter, it stressed the importance of regulatory consistency of consumer financial products and services across federal and state law. The letter noted the CFPB’s view that companies offering “income-based advances” (also marketed as “earned wage access”) are subject to federal oversight, and the CFPB supports state oversight of such companies as well. Moreover, the CFPB said that DFPI’s particular treatment of income-based advances takes a similar approach to TILA and Regulation Z and that the CFPB plans to issue further guidance regarding the applicability of TILA to these products. 

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance CFPB DFPI Consumer Finance California State Regulators CCFPL

  • DFPI opens comment period for the Digital Financial Assets Law

    On November 20, DFPI announced it is seeking public comment before it begins its formal rulemaking process on its Digital Financial Assets Law (DFAL), which was enacted on October 13. As previously covered by InfoBytes, DFAL created a licensing requirement for businesses engaging in digital financial asset business activity and is effective on July 1, 2025.

    For comments that recommend rules, DFPI encourages comments that “propose specific rule language and provide an estimate, with justification, of the potential economic impact on business and individuals that would be affected by the language.” Additionally, DFPI requests metrics, applicable information about economic impacts, or quantitative analysis to support comments. Among other topics, DFPI especially asks for comments related to (i) application fees and potential fee adjustments based on application complexity; (ii) surety bond or trust account factors; (iii) if capital minimums should vary by the type of activity requiring licensure; and (iv) its stablecoin approval process. 

    Comments must be received by January 12, 2024. On January 8, 2024, DFPI will host a Virtual Informal Listening Session with stakeholders to discuss feedback on this informal invitation for comments.

    Licensing State Issues Agency Rule-Making & Guidance DFPI California State Legislation Digital Assets Cryptocurrency

  • DFPI shares trends in consumer crypto complaints

    State Issues

    DFPI recently published a report on consumer crypto-related complaints collected through its new online complaint portal. According to the third-quarter 2023 CSO report, some of the most common complaints include (i) consumers being scammed into transferring digital assets from a legitimate crypto account to a fraudulent platform; (ii) consumers losing access to funds after transferring to an unknown wallet; (iii) consumers who invest in sham crypto investments by sending US dollars to a scammer’s platform, wallet, or bank; (iv) consumers making additional investments to scammers after receiving the first and only return; (v) consumers with concerns regarding their account activity on legitimate crypto platforms; and (vi) consumers approached by scammers via text message and social media. DFPI shared tips on how consumers can protect themselves against scams as well, noting that “[i]f it seems too good to be true, it probably is.” 

    State Issues Cryptocurrency DFPI California Digital Assets

  • DFPI orders desist and refrain against investment firm

    State Issues

    On November 16, under California Corporations Code § 25532, the California Division of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) issued a desist and refrain order against a securities investment platform for allegedly making false representations and material omissions to investors.

    The DFPI alleges the investment platform sold securities in California on its website and the platform referred to them as “certificates.” The platform claimed that the certificates paid investors returns ranging from 2.5 percent to five percent in addition to guaranteed monthly returns. To solicit investors, the platform allegedly engaged in a multi-level marketing (MLM) structure that would have investors influence others to send money. DFPI alleged that the certificates were not qualified under the California Corporate Securities Law. DFPI also alleged that the platform omitted material information to investors, which included (i) falsely representing that the platform was partnered with a particular forex broker; (ii) representing that it was a licensed bank (while omitting that the “license” was granted by a “fictitious regulator”); (iii) using the terms “bank” and “banking” while omitting that it was not authorized to engage in the business of banking in California; (iv) misrepresenting profits and risk of loss; and (v) failing to disclose that its securities were not qualified in California.  

    State Issues Securities DFPI Enforcement Investment California

  • DFPI orders deceptive debt collectors to desist and refrain, pay penalties

    State Issues

    On October 23, DFPI announced enforcement actions against four debt collectors for engaging in unlicensed debt collection activity, in violation of Debt Collection Licensing Act and unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices, in violation of the California Consumer Financial Protection Law. In its order against two entities, the department alleged that the entities contacted at least one California consumer and made deceptive statements in an attempt to collect a payday loan-related debt, among other things. In its third order against another two entities, DFPI alleged that a consumer was not provided the proper disclosures in a proposed settlement agreement to pay off their debts in a one-time payments. Additionally, DFPI alleged that the entity representatives made a false representation by communicating empty threats of an impending lawsuit.

    Under their orders (see here, here, and here), the entities must desist and refrain from engaging in illegal and deceptive practices, including (i) failing to identify as debt collectors; (ii) making false and misleading statements about payment requirements; (iii) threatening unlawful action, such as a lawsuit, because of nonpayment of a debt; (iv) contacting the consumer at a forbidden time of day; (iv) making false claims of pending lawsuits or legal process and the character, amount, or legal status of the debt; (v) failing to provide a “validation notice” ; and (vi) threatening to sue on time-barred debt.

    The entities are ordered to pay a combined $87,500 in penalties for each of the illegal and deceptive practices.

    State Issues DFPI Enforcement Debt Collection Deceptive UDAAP California CCFPL Consumer Finance Consumer Protection

  • California enacts licensing requirements for digital asset businesses, regulation of crypto kiosks

    On October 13, the California Governor signed AB 39, which will create a licensing requirement for businesses engaging in digital financial asset business activity. Crypto businesses will need to apply for a license with California’s Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI). The bill, among other things, (i) empowers DFPI to conduct examinations of a licensee; (ii) defines “digital financial asset” as “a digital representation of value that is used as a medium of exchange, unit of account, or store of value, and that is not legal tender, whether or not denominated in legal tender, except as specified”; (iii) empowers DFPI to conduct enforcement actions against a licensee or a non-licensed individual who engages in crypto business with, or on behalf of, a California resident for up to five years after their activity; (iv) allows DFPI to assess civil money penalties of up to $20,000 for each day a licensee is in material violation of the law, and up to $100,000 for each day an unlicensed person is in violation; and (v) requires licensees to provide certain disclosures to California clientele, such as when and how users may receive fees and charges, and how they are calculated. The new law exempts most government entities, certain financial institutions, most people who solely provide connectivity software, computing power, data storage or security services, and people engaging with digital assets for personal, family, household or academic use or whose digital financial asset business activity is reasonably expected to be valued at no more than $50,000 per year. In September of last year, the California Governor vetoed a similar bill because creating a licensing framework was “premature” considering conflicting efforts.

    Also effective on July 1, 2025 is SB 401, which was also enacted on October 13. SB 401 establishes regulations for crypto kiosks under the DFPI’s authority. It will, among other things, prohibit kiosk operators from accepting or dispensing more than $1,000 in a single day to or form a customer via a kiosk. Operators would be required to furnish written disclosures detailing the transaction's terms and conditions as well as transaction details. Kiosk operators will also be obligated to provide customers with a receipt for any transaction at their kiosk, including both the amount of a digital financial asset or USD involved in a transaction and, in USD, any fees, expenses, and charges collected by the kiosk operator. Finally, operators will be required to provide DFPI with a list of all its crypto kiosks in California, and such list will be made public.

    Licensing State Issues California DFPI State Legislation Cryptocurrency Digital Assets Disclosures

  • Payments processor fined $20 million by State Money Transmission Regulators and State AGs

    State Issues

    On October 16, a national payment processor entered into two settlement agreements totaling $20 million with 44 state and territory money transmission regulators and 50 state and territory attorneys general to resolve issues stemming from alleged erroneous payment transactions.  The alleged erroneous payments involved the mistaken initiation of payments on behalf of almost 480,000 mortgage borrowers, with the total amount at issue totaling nearly $2.4 billion.

    According to the settlement entered into between the payment processor and the money transmission regulators, who were working through the Multi-State Money Service Business Examination Taskforce, the mistaken payments resulted from a breakdown of internal data security controls that allowed customer data intended for use in the testing of processing code to trigger actual payments.  The payment processor, who regularly provided payment processing services to a large residential mortgage lending and servicing company, was using actual customer mortgage payment data for test purposes.  As alleged in the settlement, it was determined that in the process of conducting testing on processing code to optimize the payment processors’ payment platform, more than 1.4 million payment entries were unintentionally and erroneously processed.  This erroneous payment processing was said to be primarily the result of “circumvention of internal data security controls and a lack of segregation between internal production and testing environments.”

    The settlement reached with the money transmission regulators requires the payment processor to maintain a comprehensive risk and compliance program and to provide regular reporting to a state regulator monitoring committee to ensure the adequacy of its risk management programs. 

    Under the terms of the settlement with the money transmission regulators, the payment processor is required to pay a total of $10 million, with approximately $9.5 million of that total being shared evenly by each participating state, with the remaining roughly $500,000 being used to cover the administrative costs of the investigating states.  Under the agreement with the state attorneys general, the payment processor is required to pay an additional $10 million to the various participating states and territories.  These amounts are in addition to the $25 million fine previously agreed to in the CFPB Consent Order, bringing the total amount to be paid by the payment processor to $45 million.

    State Issues Settlement DFPI Enforcement Mortgages

  • DFPI finalizes small business UDAAP and data reporting rule

    State Issues

    DFPI recently approved the final regulation for implementing and interpreting certain sections of the California Consumer Financial Protection Law (CCFPL) related to commercial financial products and services. After considering comments and releasing three rounds of modifications to Sections 1060, 1061, and 1062, the final regulation will, among other things, bring protections to small businesses seeking loans, by (i) defining and prohibiting unfair, deceptive, and abusive acts and practices in the offering or provision of commercial financing to small businesses, nonprofits, and family farms; and (ii) establishing data collection and reporting requirements.

    Previous InfoBytes coverage on the (i) initial modifications to the CCFPL proposed regulation can be found here; (ii) the second round of CCFPL modifications proposal is found here; and (iii) the third iteration of the modified CCFPL proposal is located here.

    This DFPI regulation was notably finalized on the heels of the CFPB’s finalized Section 1071 rule on small business lending data, which similarly will require financial institutions to collect and provide the Bureau data on lending to small businesses (covered by InfoBytes here)

    Sections 1060, 1061, and 1062 will be effective on October 1.

    State Issues Agency Rule-Making & Guidance State Regulators DFPI CCFPL Commercial Finance UDAAP Small Business Lending Consumer Finance California

  • DFPI launches actions against crypto scams, initiates education campaign

    State Issues

    On August 9, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) announced that it issued cease and desist orders against three entities (orders here, here, and here) for allegedly offering and selling unqualified securities, and making material misrepresentations and omissions to investor related to cryptocurrency investments. The entities allegedly created high-yield investment programs (HYIPs), which DFPI characterizes as “investment frauds that typically promise high returns with low risk, promise overly consistent returns, provide little details about the people running the HYIP, use vague language to describe how the HYIP makes money, offer referral bonuses, facilitate deposits and withdrawals with crypto assets, and use social media to gain attention and attract investors.” 

    The cease and desist orders are just one of the tools DFPI employs to address investment scams involving crypto assets, also using enforcement actions, social media, and a Crypto Scam Tracker. DFPI has posted videos to its social media accounts that are directed towards the same group of individuals targeted by the crypto community in order to educate investors about its enforcement actions and violations of law. The Crypto Scam Tracker was launched earlier this year to help Californian’s identify and avoid scams involving cryptocurrency. (Covered by InfoBytes here).

    State Issues Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security Cryptocurrency California Enforcement Cease and Desist DFPI FDCPA


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