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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations


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  • District Court grants tech company’s motion to arbitrate smartphone data monitoring claims


    On November 9, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California issued an order granting, among other things, a global technology company defendant’s motion to compel individual arbitration in a privacy class action and dismissing the action without prejudice. As outlined in a May order issued by the court, which granted in part and denied in part defendant’s motion to dismiss plaintiff’s first amended complaint, the plaintiff alleged that the defendant failed to disclose it was (i) monitoring and collecting Android smartphone users’ sensitive personal data while users interacted with apps not owned by the defendant; or (ii) generally collecting “sensitive personal data to obtain an unfair economic advantage.” While the court dismissed the plaintiff’s California Invasion of Privacy Act claims, it allowed claims brought under the California Consumers Legal Remedies Act (which “prohibits ‘unfair methods of competition and unfair or deceptive acts or practices’”) to proceed based on the reasoning that if the defendant had disclosed these material facts, the plaintiff would have acted differently.

    The defendant moved to compel arbitration, claiming the plaintiff was using a smartphone that was bound by an arbitration provision. The plaintiff countered in both the complaint and first amended complaint, as well as in his initial disclosures, that the phone he originally purchased was never subject to an arbitration agreement. However, the court noted that account information later showed that the smartphone used by the plaintiff at the time he filed suit, as well as the smartphone he later switched to, both came with individual arbitration provisions and class waivers, subject to user opt out. The court stated that the plaintiff did not opt out of arbitration for either smartphone, and further denied the plaintiff’s motion for leave to file a second amended complaint, dismissing the action without prejudice.

    Courts Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security Arbitration State Issues Class Action California

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  • Maryland appoints officials to oversee cybersecurity and data privacy

    Privacy, Cyber Risk & Data Security

    On November 10, the Maryland governor announced the appointments of a new chief privacy officer and chief data officer, both of which are newly-created roles, as part of the state’s commitment to cybersecurity and data privacy. The chief privacy officer will lead state initiatives with respect to data privacy and will assume responsibility for “monitoring program compliance, investigation and tracking of incidents and potential breaches, and ensuring citizens’ rights.” The chief data officer will spearhead Maryland’s data governance program and will promote the use of technology and data analytics. “Public officials have no higher responsibility than keeping the American people safe, and there is no greater threat to their safety than the cyber vulnerabilities of the systems that support our daily lives,” Governor Hogan said in the statement.

    Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security State Issues Maryland

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  • Agencies end Covid mortgage servicing flexibility

    Federal Issues

    On November 10, the OCC, Federal Reserve Board, CFPB, FDIC, NCUA, and state financial regulators issued a joint statement announcing the end to temporary supervisory and enforcement flexibility provided to mortgage servicers due to the Covid-19 pandemic by the agencies’ April 3, 2020 joint statement. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the April 2020 joint statement provided mortgage servicers greater flexibility to provide CARES Act forbearance of up to 180 days and other short-term options upon the request of borrowers with federally backed mortgages without having to adhere to otherwise applicable rules. The April 2020 joint statement also announced that agencies would not take supervisory or enforcement action against mortgage servicers for failing to meet certain timing requirements under the mortgage servicing rules provided that servicers made good faith efforts to provide required notices or disclosures and took related actions within a reasonable time period.

    The agencies noted in their announcement that while the pandemic continues to affect consumers and mortgage servicers, servicers have had sufficient time to take measures to assist impacted consumers and develop more robust business continuity and remote work capabilities. Accordingly, the agencies “will apply their respective supervisory and enforcement authorities, when appropriate, to address any noncompliance or violations of the Regulation X mortgage servicing rules that occur after the date of this statement.” However, the agencies will take into consideration, when appropriate, “the specific impact of servicers’ challenges that arise due to the COVID-19 pandemic and take those issues in account when considering any supervisory and enforcement actions,” including factoring in the time it may take “to make operational adjustments in connection with this joint statement.”

    The same day, the Bureau released a report titled Mortgage Servicing Efforts in Response to the Covid-19 Pandemic, summarizing efforts taken by the Bureau since the start of the pandemic to respond to the evolving needs of homeowners and CFPB-supervised entities. These responses include: (i) conducting prioritized assessments and targeted supervisory reviews; (ii) issuing reminders to servicers that being “unprepared is unacceptable”; (iii) implementing temporary procedural safeguards to allow borrowers time to explore options before foreclosure; (vi) analyzing consumer complaint data and conducting targeted reviews of high-risk complaints related to pandemic forbearances; (v) analyzing and releasing information relating to mortgage servicers’ pandemic responses; (vi) documenting research on the pandemic’s disproportionate impact on Black, Hispanic, and low-income communities; and (vii) partnering with other federal agencies to create online tools to provide information on CARES Act assistance and protections, as well as providing homeowner outreach materials. The Bureau noted it “will continue to monitor closely the performance of mortgage servicers to prevent avoidable foreclosures to the maximum extent possible and will not hesitate to take supervisory or enforcement action if warranted.”

    Federal Issues CFPB OCC FDIC Federal Reserve NCUA Covid-19 Mortgages Mortgage Servicing Foreclosure Regulation X State Issues CARES Act Consumer Finance

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  • District Court dismisses data breach claims due to lack of jurisdiction


    On November 8, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California dismissed a putative class action brought against a French cryptocurrency wallet provider and its e-commerce vendor after determining that the court does not have jurisdiction over the companies. Plaintiffs—customers who purchased hardware wallets through the vendor’s platform between July 2017 and June 2020—alleged violations of state-level consumer protection laws after a 2020 data breach exposed the personal contact information of thousands of vendor customers. Plaintiffs contended that when the breach was announced in 2020, the wallet provider failed to inform them that their data was involved in the breach. Plaintiffs also alleged that an unauthorized third party gained access to the wallet provider’s e-commerce database and obtained the email addresses of one million customers as well as physical contact information for 9,500 customers. According to the plaintiffs, the wallet provider did not disclose that the attack on its website and the vendor’s data theft were connected, and it downplayed the seriousness of the attack. As a result, plaintiffs were allegedly subject to “phishing scams, cyber-attacks, and demands for ransom and threats.” Plaintiffs claimed that the companies failed to implement appropriate security measures to protect customer data, and brought claims against the companies for injunctive relief and other remedies under California’s unfair competition law, Georgia’s Fair Business Practices Act, and New York’s General Business Law. The defendant companies moved to dismiss, arguing that the court lacked personal jurisdiction and that plaintiffs failed to state a claim.

    The court determined that it does not have jurisdiction over the French wallet provider, and ruled, among other things, that the plaintiffs did not establish that the wallet provider “expressly aimed” its activities towards California in a way that would establish specific jurisdiction, and “did not cause harm in California that it knew was likely to be suffered there.” The court further held that the fact that the vendor was headquartered in California at the time the breach occurred is not sufficient to establish general jurisdiction because the vendor moved to Canada before the class action was filed. “Courts have uniformly held that general jurisdiction is to be determined no earlier than the time of filing of the complaint,” the court wrote, dismissing the case with prejudice.

    Courts Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security Data Breach State Issues Of Interest to Non-US Persons

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  • UAE bank fined $100 million for Sudanese sanctions violations

    Financial Crimes

    On November 9, NYDFS announced that a United Arab Emirates bank will pay a $100 million penalty to resolve an investigation into payments it allegedly processed through financial institutions in the state, including one of the bank’s New York branches. These transactions, NYDFS stated, were in violation of Sudan-related U.S. sanctions. According to NYDFS’ investigation, the bank instructed employees to avoid including certain details in messages sent between banks that would have linked the transactions to Sudan. By concealing these details, the transactions bypassed other banks’ sanctions filters, which otherwise might have triggered alerts or transaction freezes, NYDFS said. As a result, between 2005 and 2009, the bank illegally processed more than $4 billion of payments tied to Sudan. Following an announcement in 2009 that a Swiss bank used by the bank to process these transactions was being investigated by the New York County District Attorney’s Office for violating economic sanctions rules, the bank closed all U.S. dollar accounts held by Sudanese banks, but failed to disclose the prohibited transactions to NYDFS as required until 2015. NYDFS asserted that “despite having ample notice of the prohibited nature of the Sudan-related [transactions] by 2009,” the bank’s New York branch processed an additional $2.5 million in Sudan-related payments. Under the terms of the consent order, the bank—which was previously cited by NYDFS for anti-money laundering and sanctions compliance deficiencies in a 2018 consent order that included a $40 million fine—is also required to provide a status report on its U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) compliance program, in addition to paying the $100 million penalty. NYDFS acknowledged the bank’s substantial cooperation and ongoing remedial efforts.

    NYDFS coordinated its investigation with the Federal Reserve Board and OFAC, both of which announced separate settlements with the UAE bank the same day. The Fed’s announcement of its order to cease and desist cites the bank for having insufficient policies and procedures in place to ensure that activities involving branches outside the U.S. were in compliance with U.S. sanctions laws. Under the terms of the order, the bank is required, among other things, to implement an enhanced compliance program to ensure global compliance with U.S. sanctions, and must also conduct annual reviews, including a “risk-focused sampling” of its U.S. dollar payments, led by an independent external party. The order did not include any additional monetary penalties for the bank.

    OFAC also issued a finding of violation (FOV) for violations of the now-repealed Sudanese Sanctions Regulations related to the bank’s actions. These violations included 1,760 transactions that involved USD transfers from Sudanese banks that were processed by the bank’s London branch and routed through U.S. banks. In determining that the appropriate administrative action was an FOV rather than a civil monetary penalty, OFAC stated the bank “voluntarily entered into a retroactive statute of limitations waiver agreement, without which OFAC would have been time-barred from charging the violations.” Because the payment messages did not include the originating Sudanese bank, U.S. correspondent banking partners “could not interdict the payments, and the payments were successfully processed through the U.S. financial system,” OFAC stated. However, OFAC credited the bank with providing substantial cooperation during the investigation, and noted that the bank had taken “extensive remediation” efforts before the investigation began in 2015, and has spent more than $122 million on compliance enhancements.

    Financial Crimes Of Interest to Non-US Persons OFAC Department of Treasury NYDFS OFAC Sanctions Sudan Enforcement Bank Regulatory Federal Reserve State Issues

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  • Illinois AG, IDFPR settle with three payday lenders

    State Issues

    On November 5, the Illinois attorney general and the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation (IDFPR) announced a settlement resolving allegations that three companies violated Illinois lending laws by generating payday loan leads without a license and arranging high-cost payday loans for out-of-state payday unlicensed lenders. The AG and IDFPR further alleged that the companies falsely represented their loan network as being “trustworthy,” although the loan terms and conditions did not comply with Illinois law, which violated the Illinois’ Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Business Practices Act. The AG sued the companies in 2014 after the companies refused to comply with a cease and desist order issued by IDFPR, which required them to become licensed. According to the announcement, under the terms of the settlement, the companies are prohibited from: (i) arranging or offering small-dollar loans, online or otherwise, without being licensed by IDFPR; (ii) advertising or offering any small consumer loan arrangements or lead generation services in Illinois, unless they are licensed by IDFPR; and (iii) providing services associated with arranging or offering small dollar loans to Illinois consumers without being licensed by IDFPR.

    State Issues Licensing Illinois Payday Lending State Attorney General State Regulators Consumer Finance

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  • DFPI reminds CFL licensees of December 31 transition deadline

    Recently, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) reminded companies licensed under the California Financing Law that they must transition onto the Nationwide Multistate Licensing System & Registry (NMLS) by December 31. Licensees not currently on the NMLS must establish an account in the system and transfer information to DFPI through NMLS on or before the deadline. Applicants and transitioning licensees are required to submit IRS and Secretary of State documentation identifying the employer identification number and the state where the company is registered as a business. DFPI further stated that the time for “DFPI to process the licensee’s NMLS transition does not [affect] the licensure status of the licensee, and may occur after the licensee’s December 31, 2021 deadline to submit the licensee’s information to the DFPI through NMLS.”

    Licensing DFPI NMLS State Regulators California California Financing Law State Issues

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  • Utah amends mortgage practices and licensing rule provisions

    Recently, the Utah Department of Commerce adopted amendments to the Utah Residential Mortgage Practices and Licensing Rules to eliminate unnecessary and redundant licensee expenses for criminal background checks and credit reports. Among other things, the amendments provide that if a licensee submits a fingerprint background report to the Nationwide Multistate Licensing System & Registry (NMLS) “that is current according to the NMLS and is dated within 90-days of the date of the application to renew, the Division shall use that fingerprint background report in satisfaction of the requirement of. . .subsection [R162-2c-204]. If there is no current fingerprint background report in the NMLS, the licensee shall submit a fingerprint background report to the NMLS with the licensee’s application to renew.” The same condition also applies to current credit reports dated within 30-days of the date the renewal application was submitted to the NMLS. The amendments also update certain license qualification provisions related to moral character and felony convictions, and eliminate provisions concerning employee incentive programs related to licensed entities. These provisions took effect October 26.

    Licensing Mortgages State Issues Utah NMLS

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  • DFPI addresses several MTA licensing exemptions

    Recently, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) released several new opinion letters covering aspects of the California Money Transmission Act (MTA) related to virtual currency and agent of payee rules. Highlights from the redacted letters include:

    • Cryptocurrency and Agent of Payee Exemption. The redacted opinion letter reviewed whether MTA licensure is required for a company’s proposal to offer payment processing services that would enable merchants to receive payments in U.S. dollars from buyers of goods and services, automatically exchange these payments into dollar-denominated tokens on a blockchain network, and to store the tokens in a custodial digital wallet. DFPI currently does not require licensure for companies to receive U.S. dollars from a buyer for transfer to a merchant’s wallet as dollar tokens. DFPI explained that even if it did regulate this activity, the structure of the company’s payment processing services satisfies the requirements of the agent-of-payee exemption, wherein the company acts as the agent of the merchant pursuant to a preexisting written contract and the company’s receipt of payment satisfies the buyer’s obligation to the merchant for goods or services. DFPI further explained that while storing dollar tokens in a custodial digital wallet or making subsequent transfers out of a wallet do not currently require licensure under the MTA, DFPI may later determine the activities are subject to regulatory supervision.
    • Asset-Backed Tokens and Other Cryptocurrency. The redacted opinion letter asked DFPI whether an MTA license is required to (i) provide technical services to enable owners of metal to create digital assets representing interests in that metal; (ii) facilitate trading in these digital assets; or (iii) provide digital wallets to customers. The company intends to create a platform to facilitate the creation, sale, and trading of metal asset-backed tokens, whereby a customer purchases metal asset-backed tokens (ABTs) or currency tokens using fiat currency stored in an FBO account. Customers will not be allowed to transmit fiat currency to each other except to facilitate the purchase of ABTs or currency tokens, to receive proceeds from ABTs, or to pay platform fees. DFPI explained that while issuing stored value is generally considered money transmission, “[p]roviding technical services to assist in the creation of a [m]etal ABT and [i]ndustrial [t]okens and issuing a digital wallet holding the [m]etal ABT does not require licensure.” DFPI noted that the company is not itself issuing the ABT or industrial tokens. DFPI further concluded that the company does not need an MTA license to issue a digital wallet holding metal ATBs because the digital wallet is not stored value nor can the wallet’s contents be redeemed for money or monetary value or be used as payment for goods or services. DFPI separately indicated that a license is not currently required to facilitate the sale of ABTs, nor the issuance and sale of currency tokens. However, DFPI warned the company that the opinion only pertains to MTA, and that the company should be aware that metal ABTs and industrial tokens “could be considered a commodity and California Corporations Code section 29520 generally prohibits the sale of a commodity, unless an exception applies.”
    • Cryptocurrency-to-Precious Metals Dealer. The redacted opinion letter reviewed whether an online cryptocurrency-to-precious metals dealer, which accepts a variety of different cryptocurrencies in exchange for precious metals and also purchases precious metals from customers using different cryptocurrencies, requires MTA licensure. The company referenced a 2016 decision where DFPI determined that a company operating a software technology platform to facilitate the purchase and sale of gold was not engaged in money transmission, that gold and other precious metals were not payment instruments, that the transactions did not represent selling or issuing stored value, and that “the activity did not constitute receiving money for transmission because the sale or repurchase of gold was a bargained-for-exchange and did not involve transmission to a third party.” The company argued that purchasing and selling precious metals with cryptocurrency is similar and should not trigger MTA’s licensing requirement. DFPI agreed that the company’s business activities do not meet the definition of money transmission because precious metals are not payment instruments, and as such, purchasing and selling precious metals for cryptocurrency does not represent the sale or issuance of a payment instrument. Additionally, DFPI concluded that the company is not selling or issuing stored value, nor do the transactions “involve the receipt of money or monetary value for transmission within or outside the U.S.”
    • Virtual Currency Wallet. The redacted opinion letter asked whether an MTA license is required to operate a platform that will provide customers with an account to store and transfer virtual currencies. The company will also provide customers access to an exchange where they can facilitate the purchase or sale of virtual currencies in exchange for other virtual currencies. Fiat currency will not be used on the platform. DFPI stated that it does not currently require companies to obtain an MTA license to operate a platform that provides customers with an account to store and transfer virtual currencies. DFPI further stated that a license is not required to operate a platform that gives customers access to an exchange to purchase or sell virtual currencies in exchange for other virtual currencies.
    • Purchase of Cryptocurrency. The redacted opinion letter examined whether a company that offers clients a direct opportunity to buy cryptocurrency in exchange for fiat currency requires MTA licensure. The company explained, among other things, that there is no transmission of cryptocurrency to third parties and that it does not offer money transmission services. DFPI concluded that because the company’s activities are limited to directly selling cryptocurrency to clients, it “does not require an MTA license because it does not involve the sale or issuance of a payment instrument, the sale or issuance of stored value, or receiving money for transmission.”

    DFPI reminded the companies that its determinations are limited to the presented facts and circumstances and that any change could lead to different conclusions. Moreover, the letters do not relieve the companies from any FinCEN or federal regulatory obligations.

    Licensing State Issues DFPI California Money Transmission Act Money Service / Money Transmitters California Cryptocurrency Fintech

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  • 9th Circuit: Israeli company is not entitled to foreign sovereign immunity over malware claims


    On November 8, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed a district court’s order denying a private Israeli company’s motion to dismiss claims based on foreign sovereign immunity. The Israeli company (defendant) designs and licenses surveillance technology to governments and government agencies for national security and law enforcement purposes. According to the opinion, the defendant markets and licenses a product that allows law enforcement and intelligence agencies to covertly intercept messages, take screenshots, or extract information such as a mobile device’s contacts or history. The plaintiffs (a messaging company and global social media company) sued the defendant claiming it sent malware through the messaging company’s server system to approximately 1,400 mobile devices to gather users’ information in violation of state and federal law, including the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and the California Comprehensive Computer Data Access and Fraud Act. The defendant moved to dismiss, claiming foreign sovereign immunity protected it from the suit. The defendant further contended that even if the plaintiffs’ allegations were true, it was “acting as an agent of a foreign state, entitling it to ‘conduct-based immunity’—a common-law doctrine that protects foreign officials acting in their official capacity.” The district court disagreed, ruling that common-law foreign official immunity does not protect the defendant in this case because the defendant “failed to show that exercising jurisdiction over [the defendant] would serve to enforce a rule of law against a foreign state.”

    Although the 9th Circuit agreed with the district court that the defendant, as a private company, is not entitled to immunity, the panel affirmed on separate grounds. The 9th Circuit based its determination instead on the fact that “the Foreign Sovereign Immunity Act (FSIA or Act) occupies the field of foreign sovereign immunity as applied to entities and categorically forecloses extending immunity to any entity that falls outside the FSIA’s broad definition of ‘foreign state.’” Among other things, the 9th Circuit rejected the defendant’s claim that because governments use its technology it is entitled to the immunity extended to sovereigns. “Whatever [the defendant’s] government customers do with its technology and services does not render [the defendant] an ‘agency or instrumentality of a foreign state,’ as Congress has defined that term,” the appellate court wrote. In contrast to the district court, the 9th Circuit rejected the defendant’s argument that it could claim foreign sovereign immunity under common-law immunity doctrines that apply to foreign officials (i.e., natural persons), finding that “Congress [had] displaced common-law sovereign immunity doctrine as it relates to entities.”

    Courts Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security Ninth Circuit Appellate Of Interest to Non-US Persons State Issues Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act Sovereign Immunity

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