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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations


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  • Agencies file amicus brief on “hybrid” loan MLA protections


    On January 6, the CFPB, DOJ, and DOD filed an amicus brief on behalf of the United States in support of a consumer servicemember plaintiff’s appeal in Jerry Davidson v. United Auto Credit Corp, arguing that the hybrid loan at issue in the case, which was used for both an MLA-exempt and non-exempt purpose, must comply with the MLA. The loan included an amount used to purchase Guaranteed Auto Protection (GAP) insurance coverage, and the plaintiff alleged that, among other things, the auto lender (defendant) violated the MLA by forcing the plaintiff to waive important legal rights as a condition of accepting the loan and by requiring him to agree to mandatory arbitration should any dispute arise related to the loan. The plaintiff also alleged that the defendant failed to accurately communicate his repayment obligations by failing to disclose the correct annual percentage rate. The case is before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit after a district court held that the plaintiff’s GAP insurance fell within the car-loan exception to the MLA as “inextricably tied to” and “directly related” to the vehicle purchase.

    Arguing that GAP coverage “is not needed to buy a car and does not advance the purchase or use of the car,” the agencies’ brief noted that GAP coverage is identified as “debt-related product that addresses a financial contingency arising from a total loss of the car” and that the coverage can be purchased as a standalone product. According to the brief, the plaintiff’s loan is a “hybrid loan—that is, a loan that finances a product bundle including both an exempt product (such as a car) and a distinct non-exempt product (such as optional GAP coverage),” and the district court erred in failing to interpret the MLA consistent with guidance issued in 2016 and 2017 by the DOD suggesting that such “hybrid loans” are consumer credit subject to the protections in the MLA. The 2017 guidance explained that “a credit transaction that includes financing for Guaranteed Auto Protection insurance … would not qualify for the exception,” and the agencies argued that although the 2017 guidance was withdrawn in 2020, the “withdrawal did not offer a substantive interpretation of the statute that would alter the conclusion” that the plaintiff’s loan was not exempt from the MLA.

    Courts CFPB Department of Defense DOJ Amicus Brief Appellate Fourth Circuit Servicemembers Military Lending Act Military Lending GAP Fees

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  • CFPB, DOJ remind on servicemember protections

    Federal Issues

    On December 20, the CFPB and the DOJ issued two joint letters reminding mortgage servicers and landlords to ensure that military homeowners and tenants are safeguarded during the Covid-19 pandemic and benefit equally as the U.S. economically recovers. One letter was sent to landlords and other housing providers on protections for military tenants, reminding property owners of the critical housing protections for military tenants, some of whom may have had to make alterations to their housing arrangements in response to the pandemic. The other letter was sent to mortgage servicers regarding military borrowers who have exited or will be exiting Covid-19 mortgage forbearance programs. The letter comes in response to complaints from military families and veterans on possible mortgage servicing violations, which include, among other things, inaccurate credit reporting and misleading communications to borrowers. According to the second letter, the CFPB and the DOJ warned, “[s]uch actions, if true, may be in violation of the legal protections under the CARES Act or contrary to administrative guidance issued by federal housing agencies,” and that the Bureau “is currently reviewing these complaints to determine if further investigation is warranted.” The announcement also reminded landlord and servicers that “[s]ervicemembers have several legal protections under the SCRA that are designed to enable them to devote their entire energy to the national defense,” which include, among other things, “a prohibition on foreclosing on certain servicemembers’ mortgages without court orders, the ability for military families to terminate residential leases early, and without penalty, upon receipt of military orders, and a prohibition on evicting military families from their homes without court orders. In addition, under the CARES Act and Regulation X, servicemembers and veterans have the same protections available to all mortgage borrowers.” The announcement also noted that approximately 7.6 million homeowners entered forbearance during the Covid-19 pandemic and 1.25 million borrowers, many of whom are military borrowers, are still currently in forbearance programs that will expire at the end of the year. 

    Federal Issues CFPB DOJ Consumer Finance Mortgages Mortgage Servicing SCRA Servicemembers CARES Act Covid-19

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  • CFPB sues pawn lenders for MLA violations

    Federal Issues

    On November 12, the CFPB filed a complaint against a Texas-based pawn lender and its wholly owned subsidiary (together, “lenders”) for allegedly violating the Military Lending Act (MLA) by charging active-duty servicemembers and their dependents more than the allowable 36 percent annual percentage rate on pawn loans. According to the Bureau, between June 2017 and May 2021, the two lenders together allegedly made more than 3,600 pawn loans carrying APRs that “frequently exceeded” 200 percent to more than 1,000 covered borrowers. The Bureau further claimed that the lenders failed to make all loan disclosures required by the MLA and forced borrowers to waive their ability to sue. The identified 3,600 pawn loans only represent a limited period for which the Bureau has transactional data, the complaint stated, adding that the pawn stores located in Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and Washington that originated these loans only comprise roughly 10 percent of the Texas lender’s nationwide pawn-loan transactions. As such, that Bureau alleged that the lenders—together with their other wholly owned subsidiaries—made additional pawn loans in violation of the MLA from stores in these and other states. The Bureau seeks injunctive relief, consumer restitution, disgorgement, civil money penalties, and other relief, including a court order enjoining the lenders from collecting on the allegedly illegal loans and from selling or assigning such debts.

    As previously covered by InfoBytes, the Bureau issued a prior consent order against an affiliated lender in 2013, which required the payment of $14 million in consumer redress and a $5 million civil money penalty. The affiliated lender was also ordered to cease its MLA violations. In its current action, the Bureau noted that because the Texas lender (who was not identified in the 2013 action) is a successor to the prior affiliated lender, it is therefore subject to the 2013 order. Accordingly, the Bureau alleged that the Texas lender’s violations of the MLA also violated the 2013 order.

    Federal Issues CFPB Enforcement Military Lending Military Lending Act Consumer Finance Interest Rate APR Nonbank CFPA Servicemembers

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  • CFPB issues semi-annual report to Congress

    Federal Issues

    On October 8, the CFPB issued its semi-annual report to Congress covering the Bureau’s work from October 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021. The report, which is required by Dodd-Frank, addresses, among other things, the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on consumer credit, significant rules and orders adopted by the Bureau, consumer complaints, and various supervisory and enforcement actions taken by the Bureau. In his opening letter, Director Dave Uejio discusses the Bureau’s efforts to increase racial equity in the marketplace and to mitigate the financial effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on consumers, including measures such as reinstituted regular public reporting, developing Prioritized Assessments to protect consumers from elevated risks of harm related to the pandemic, and numerous enforcement actions with claims or findings of various violations. Uejio also notes that communities of color, particularly Black and Hispanic communities, have disproportionately experienced the health and economic effects of the pandemic, and states that the Bureau is utilizing “all [of its] tools to ensure that all communities, of all races and economic backgrounds, can participate in and benefit from the nation’s economic recovery.”

    Among other topics, the report highlights two publications by the Bureau: one focusing on the TRID Integrated Disclosure Rule (covered by InfoBytes here), and another focusing on credit record trends for young enlisted servicemembers during the first year after separation (covered by InfoBytes here). The effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on consumer credit are also discussed, as are the results from the Bureau’s Making Ends Meet Survey. In addition to these areas of focus, the report notes the issuance of several significant notices of proposed rulemaking related to remittance transfers, debt collection practices, the transition from LIBOR, and qualified mortgage definitions under TILA. Multiple final rules were also issued concerning Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z); remittance transfers; and payday, vehicle, title, and certain high-cost installment loans. Several other rules and initiatives undertaken during the reporting period are also highlighted.

    Federal Issues CFPB Covid-19 Consumer Finance Agency Rule-Making & Guidance TRID Servicemembers LIBOR TILA Payday Rule

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  • DOJ settles SCRA violations with New Jersey student lending authority

    Federal Issues

    On September 20, the DOJ announced a settlement with a New Jersey’s student lending authority, resolving allegations that the authority obtained unlawful court judgments in violation of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA) against two military servicemembers who co-signed student loans . According to the press release, the DOJ launched an investigation into the authority after receiving a report from the Coast Guard that the authority obtained a default judgment in 2019 against a Coast Guard petty officer who co-signed on behalf of the two student loans. The complaint, filed by the DOJ in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey, states that the authority “obtained default judgments against two SCRA-protected servicemembers” by failing “to file true and accurate affidavits indicating the military status of [the two service servicemembers].” According to the DOJ, lenders can verify an individual’s military status by utilizing a defense data center’s free and public website, or by reviewing their files to confirm military status. The authority allegedly filed affidavits in state court that inaccurately stated that the servicemembers were not in military service, even though the authority had conducted searches in the defense data center’s website that confirmed that the individuals were active military servicemembers.

    The settlement notes that the authority must pay $15,000 each to the two servicemembers who had default judgments entered against them, and must pay a $20,000 civil penalty. Among other things, the settlement also requires the authority to provide compliance training to its employees and to develop new policies and procedures consistent with the SCRA. The settlement also notes that the authority, since the opening of the investigation, has been fully cooperative and has “taken steps to improve its compliance with the SCRA.” 

    Federal Issues DOJ SCRA Military Lending New Jersey Student Lending Courts Enforcement Servicemembers

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  • FTC to use CIDs and subpoenas to streamline investigations

    Federal Issues

    On September 14, the FTC voted 3-2, at the recommendation of the Bureau of Consumer Protection and Bureau of Competition, to approve a series of resolutions intended to streamline consumer protection and competition investigations in core FTC-priority areas over the next decade. At the recommendation of the Bureaus, the FTC authorized eight new compulsory process resolutions, which authorize the use of civil investigative demands and subpoenas when investigating the following areas: (i) acts or practices affecting U.S. servicemember and veterans; (ii) acts or practices affecting children under 18; (iii) algorithmic and biometric bias; (iv) deceptive and manipulative online conduct, including matters related to tech support scams, payment processing, marketing of goods and services, and user interface manipulation; (v) repair restrictions; (vi) intellectual property abuse; (vii) common directors and officers and common ownership; and (viii) monopolization offenses. According to the FTC, adopting these resolutions will enhance and streamline the ability of FTC investigators and prosecutors to obtain evidence in critical investigations relating to potential violations of the FTC Act. FTC Commissioner Rohit Chopra issued a statement following the vote, commenting that the adoption “will improve the agency’s ability to order documents and data in investigations and fills a notable gap in the Commission’s long list of enforcement authorizations developed over many years.”

    Federal Issues FTC Consumer Protection FTC Act Investigations Enforcement Servicemembers UDAP

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  • House passes comprehensive debt collection measures

    Federal Issues

    On May 13, the U.S. House passed, by a vote of 215-207, H.R. 2547, which would provide additional financial protections for consumers and place several restrictions on debt collection activities. Known as the “Comprehensive Debt Collection Improvement Act,” H.R. 2547 consolidates 10 separate proposed consumer protection bills into one comprehensive package.

    Provisions under the package would cover:

    • Confessions of Judgment (COJs). The bill would amend TILA and expand the ban on COJs to cover small business owners and merchant cash advance companies.
    • Servicemembers. The bill would amend the FDCPA to prohibit debt collectors from threatening servicemembers, including by representing to servicemembers that failure to cooperate will result in a reduction of rank, revocation of their security clearance, or prosecution. Covered debtors would include active-duty service members, those released from duty in the past year, and certain dependents.
    • Student Loans. The bill would amend TILA to require the discharge of private student loans in the case of a borrower’s death or total and permanent disability.
    • Medical Debt. The bill would amend the FDCPA by making it an unfair practice to “engag[e] in activities to collect or attempt[] to collect a medical debt before the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date that the first payment with respect to such medical debt is due.” The bill would also amend the FCRA to, among other things, bar entities from collecting medical debt or reporting it to a consumer reporting agency without providing a consumer notice about their rights.
    • Electronic Communication. The bill would amend the FDCPA to limit a debt collector from contacting a consumer by email, text message, or direct message on social media without receiving the debtor’s permission to be contacted electronically. It would also prevent debt collectors from sending unlimited electronic communications to consumers.
    • Other Debt Provisions. The bill would (i) expand the definition of debt covered under the FDCPA to include money owed to a federal agency, states, or local government; certain personal, family, or household transactions; and court debts; (ii) restrict federal agencies from transferring debt to a collector until at least 90 days after the obligation becomes delinquent or defaults; (iii) require agencies to notify consumers at least three times—with notifications spaced at least 30 days apart—before transferring their debt; and (iv) limit the fees debt collectors can charge.
    • Penalties. The bill would require the CFPB to update monetary penalties under the FDCPA for inflation. It would also (i) clarify that courts can award injunctive relief; (ii) cap damages in class actions; and (iii) add protections for consumers affected by national disasters.
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosures. The bill would amend the FDCPA to clarify that companies engaged in non-judicial foreclosure proceedings are covered by the statute.
    • Legal Actions. The bill would amend the FDCPA to outline requirements for debt collectors taking legal action to collect or attempt to collect a debt, including providing a consumer with written notice, as well as documents showing the consumer agreed to the contract creating the debt, and a sworn affidavit stating the applicable statute of limitations has not expired.

    Federal Issues Federal Legislation U.S. House Debt Collection Confessions of Judgement Servicemembers Student Lending FDCPA TILA FCRA Consumer Finance

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  • CFPB Office of Servicemember Affairs releases annual report on servicemembers’ financial needs

    Federal Issues

    On May 6, the CFPB’s Office of Servicemember Affairs (OSA) released its annual report, which provides an overview of OSA’s activities in fulfilling its statutory responsibilities for fiscal year 2020 and covers the period between January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020. The report also addresses concerns raised by military consumers based on approximately 40,000 complaints submitted by servicemembers, veterans, and their families (collectively “servicemembers”). Key takeaways from the report include the following:

    • Financial help due to the Covid-19 pandemic. In response to Covid-19, the Bureau released an online resource “to highlight tools and information that consumers can use to protect themselves and manage their finances, including information on topics such as mortgage and housing assistance, student loans, and avoiding scams.” For servicemembers, the page connects to an OSA blog detailing resources that military personnel can use for immediate financial assistance and to sustain long-term financial well-being.
    • Misadventures in Money Management (MiMM). MiMM serves as an online educational tool that provides young servicemembers with an important “baseline of financial education through the power of storytelling and gamification.”
    • Consumer Financial Protection Week and Military Consumer Protection Month. OSA took part in a joint webinar with the CFPB’s Office of Older Americans and the Office of Community Affairs, which highlighted initiatives for vulnerable populations and emphasized the “importance of research in understanding the financial well-being of military consumers.” The webinar also unveiled the Bureau’s “first research report that studied how the credit records of young servicemembers coevolve with military service.”
    • National Veterans and Military Families Month. During November 2020, OSA organized with other agencies and organizations to encourage the military community to leverage available resources to help improve their financial well-being. These initiatives included, among other things: (i) publishing OSA’s Debt and Delinquency after Military Service research report; (ii) participating in the Bureau’s Financial inTuition Repayment Podcast Series; and (iii) convening “a virtual military consumer webinar with partner agencies and organizations to discuss financial challenges facing servicemembers, veterans, and their families in the financial marketplace.”
    • Education and empowerment. The Bureau also “deployed and amplif[ied] [its] financial education tools through partners, engaging servicemembers and military families at townhall-style listening sessions at military installations.”

    Federal Issues CFPB Servicemembers Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Consumer Complaints Consumer Finance SCRA Military Lending Act

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  • OCC updates SCRA Comptroller’s Handbook booklet

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On March 4, the OCC issued Bulletin 2021-11 announcing the revision of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA) booklet of the Comptroller’s Handbook. The booklet rescinds the 2011 version and provides background information and examination procedures on consumer protections afforded servicemembers under the SCRA. Among other things, the revised booklet (i) summarizes SCRA protections and requirements; (ii) discusses compliance, operational, strategic, and reputation risks associated with a bank’s SCRA activities; (iii) discusses risk management practices for effective SCRA compliance; and (iv) includes procedures for examining banks’ compliance with the SCRA.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance OCC Servicemembers Comptroller's Handbook Examination Bank Regulatory

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  • CFPB reports on debt trends for young veterans leaving service

    Federal Issues

    On November 9, the CFPB released a report highlighting credit record trends for young enlisted servicemembers during the first year after separation. According to the CFPB, a large number of these servicemembers become delinquent on debt payments or have severe derogatories appear on their credit records around the time they leave active duty. The report analyzes a sample of 10,872 servicemembers and finds that, for servicemembers who serve at least 7 months, “delinquencies and defaults are between two and 10 times more like to appear on a credit record in the six months after separation as compared to the six months before.” In addition, servicemembers who have negative outcomes show declines in their credit scores just after separation, with recovery not occurring until at least one year after leaving the military. Credit score declines are most severe for those who serve between 7 and 35 months as well as “for those who exit with a Near prime credit score or below, as opposed to a Prime score or better.” Among other things, the report focuses on several categories of young veterans and identifies the following three types of credit accounts to be the most likely sources of delinquencies and defaults: auto loans, credit cards, and personal or retail installment loans. The report also addresses several credit outcomes: credit scores, third-party collections debt (medical and non-medical debt), 90-day delinquencies, and severe derogatory outcomes. While the report’s data does not specifically indicate reasons for a servicemember’s separation, the Bureau reports that part of the cause may be attributed to financial difficulties, and that assisting servicemembers make better financial decisions may increase retention for service branches.

    Federal Issues CFPB Servicemembers Credit Report Consumer Finance

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