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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations


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  • 5th Circuit affirms SEC’s victim awards


    On October 12, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed a district court’s nearly $2.4 million disgorgement order in an SEC case involving alleged penny stock fraud, marking the first time an appellate court has been asked to decide the “awarded for victims” question that arose out of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Liu v. SEC. As previously covered by InfoBytes, in 2020, the Court held that the SEC may continue to collect disgorgement in civil proceedings in federal court as long as the award does not exceed a wrongdoer’s net profits, and that such awards for victims of the wrongdoing are equitable relief permissible under the Exchange Act, 15 U.S.C. §78u(d)(5). The Court’s decision discussed three limits: (i) the “profits remedy” must return the defendant’s wrongful gains to those harmed by the defendant’s actions, as opposed to depositing them in the Treasury; (ii) disgorgement under the statute requires a factual determination of whether petitioners can, consistent with equitable principles, be found liable for profits as partners in wrongdoing or whether individual liability is required; and (iii) disgorgement must be limited to “net profits” and therefore “courts must deduct legitimate expenses before ordering disgorgement” under the statute. 

    In the current action, the SEC brought a case against three individuals accused of allegedly selling unregistered securities and misleading investors during their operation of a penny stock company. The district court found the individuals liable on several of the claims and granted summary judgment in favor of the SEC. The district court also ordered (and later amended) disgorgement of the proceeds that the individuals obtained in the alleged fraud. The individuals appealed, challenging both the summary judgment decision (on the premise that “‘numerous’ disputed fact issues exist”) and the amended disgorgement remedy. Upon review, the 5th Circuit determined that that the district court’s disgorgement order satisfied the requirements laid out by the Court in Liu. The appellate court stated that the individuals’ appeal failed “to identify any disputed issues; nor does it sufficiently challenge the court’s analysis finding them liable based on undisputed facts.” Moreover, the 5th Circuit explained that the district court did not impose joint-and several liability, but rather individually assessed disgorgement amounts for each defendant based on the gains they received from the securities fraud, adding that the SEC has identified the victims of the fraud and created a process for the return of the disgorged funds. According to the 5th Circuit, “[u]nder the district court’s supervision, any funds recovered will go to the SEC, acting as a de facto trustee. The SEC will then disburse those funds to victims but only after district court approval.” “The disgorgement thus is being ‘awarded for victims.’”

    Courts SEC Fifth Circuit Appellate Liu v. SEC Disgorgement Securities Exchange Act Enforcement

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  • District Court remands debt collection class action to state court for lack of standing


    On October 12, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois granted plaintiff’s motion to remand a debt collection class action lawsuit back to state court. The plaintiff claimed the defendants violated the Illinois Collection Agency Act and FDCPA Section 1692c(b) by using a third-party mailing vendor to print and mail collection letters to class members. According to the plaintiff’s complaint filed in state court, conveying the information to the vendor—an allegedly unauthorized party—served as a communication under the FDCPA. The defendants removed the case to federal court, but on review, the court determined the plaintiff did not have Article III standing to sue because Congress did not intend to prevent debt collectors from using mail vendors when the FDCPA was enacted. Specifically, the court disagreed with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit’s decision in Hunstein v. Preferred Collection & Management Services, which held that transmitting a consumer’s private data to a commercial mail vendor to generate debt collection letters violates Section 1692c(b) of the FDCPA because it is considered transmitting a consumer’s private data “in connection with the collection of any debt.” (Covered by InfoBytes here.) In this case, the court stated it “is difficult to imagine Congress intended for the FDCPA to extend so far as to prevent debt collectors from enlisting the assistance of mailing vendors to perform ministerial duties, such as printing and stuffing the debt collectors’ letters, in effectuating the task entrusted to them by the creditors—especially when so much of the process is presumably automated in this day and age.” According to the court, “such a scenario runs afoul of the FDCPA’s intended purpose to prevent debt collectors from utilizing truly offensive means to collect a debt.”

    Courts Vendor Third-Party Hunstein Appellate Eleventh Circuit Debt Collection State Issues FDCPA Class Action

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  • New York expands disclosure requirements for creditors and debt collectors

    State Issues

    On October 8, the New York governor signed S737A, which requires creditors and debt collectors to clearly and conspicuously disclose to a debtor that communications are available in alternative formats. Among other things, the bill requires that creditors and debt collectors: (i) be assessed a civil penalty of up to $250 for violations of the law and up to $500 for each subsequent violation; and (ii) supply a phone number for consumers to request the letter in an alternative format. The bill also defines “communication,” “debt,” and “debt collector.”

    State Issues New York State Legislation Consumer Finance Debt Collection Disclosures

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  • New Jersey settles CFA and HIPAA matter with fertility clinic

    State Issues

    On October 12, the New Jersey attorney general and the Division of Consumer Affairs announced an action against a healthcare provider alleging that the defendant violated the New Jersey Consumer Fraud Act, the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule, and the HIPAA Security Rule by removing administrative and technological safeguards for protected health information (PHI) and electronic PHI (ePHI). The settlement resolves allegations that the defendant’s data breach allowed instances, between August 2016 and January 2017, of unauthorized access to the defendant’s network, which permitted at least one intruder to access consumer ePHI. Among other things, the defendant’s alleged violations include failing to: (i) ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of ePHI; (ii) implement a mechanism to encrypt ePHI; (iii) review and modify security measures; (iv) implement proper procedures for creating, changing, and safeguarding passwords; and (v) implement verification procedures. According to the consent order, the defendant must pay $412,300 in civil penalties and $82,700 in investigative costs and attorney fees. The defendant is also required to implement extensive reforms to its data security system and encryption protocols to protect clients' PHI and prevent future breaches.

    State Issues New Jersey Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security State Attorney General Data Breach Consumer Protection

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  • SEC announces final rule for filing fee disclosure and payment methods modernization


    On October 13, the SEC announced a final rule to adopt amendments to modernize filing fee disclosure and payment methods, which is intended to improve filing fee preparation and payment processing. Operating companies and investment companies (funds) pay filing fees when participating in some transactions, which include registered securities offerings, tender offers, and mergers and acquisitions. According to the SEC, the amendments revise most fee-bearing forms, schedules, and associated rules to require that companies and funds include all required information for filing fee calculation in a structured format. The amendments also create new options for ACH and debit and credit card payment of filing fees and remove options for filing fee payment by paper checks and money orders that are infrequently used. According to a statement by SEC Chair Gary Gensler, these amendments, “will make the filing process faster, less expensive, and more efficient for SEC staff and market participants.” The final rule is effective January 31, 2022, except for certain amendments that are effective May 31, 2022.

    Securities SEC Fees ACH Payments Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

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  • SEC enforcement director says admissions increase accountability


    On October 13, the SEC Director of the Division of Enforcement, Gurbir Grewal, indicated that the agency will require admissions in cases “where heightened accountability and acceptance of responsibility are in the public interest.” Speaking before the Practising Law Institute’s SEC Speaks conference, Grewal discussed the link between repeated lapses by large businesses, gatekeepers, and other market participants and the decline in investor confidence. Addressing perceptions that regulators are failing to appropriately hold these businesses, including financial institutions, accountable and that there are two sets of rules—one for powerful companies and one for everyone else—Grewal discussed the need to sharpen enforcement efforts to reestablish trust. This includes emphasizing corporate responsibility, providing timely and accurate disclosures, focusing on gatekeeper accountability, and crafting appropriate remedies, particularly prophylactic ones. “When it comes to accountability, few things rival the magnitude of wrongdoers admitting that they broke the law,” Grewal stated. “Admissions, given their attention-getting nature, also serve as a clarion call to other market participants to stamp out and self-report the misconduct to the extent it is occurring in their firm.” He also discussed the importance of officer and director bars, adding that “if there is egregious conduct and a chance the person could have the opportunity to serve at the highest levels of a public company, we may well seek an officer and director bar to keep that person from being in a position to harm investors again.”

    Securities SEC Enforcement

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  • SEC chair discusses digital analytics in finance


    On October 12, SEC Chair Gary Gensler stated that the agency is reviewing conflicts of interest and other risk concerns that may be associated with digital engagement practices (DEPs) employed by online brokerages and advisers. Speaking before the Practising Law Institute’s SEC Speaks conference, Gensler discussed the use of digital analytics in finance and warned attendees that DEPs used by finance platforms to tailor products to individual investors could be “transformative” and may increase access and choice, but may also introduce conflicts of interest, bias, and systemic risks if they are not closely monitored. “These modern features go beyond game-like elements, or what is sometimes called ‘gamification,’” Gensler stated. “They encompass the underlying predictive data analytics, as well as a variety of differential marketing practices, pricing, and behavioral prompts.” Use of predictive data analytics by finance platforms could raise issues with those platforms’ legal duties, he added, noting that finance platforms have an obligation “to comply with investor protections through specific duties—things like fiduciary duty, duty of care, duty of loyalty, best execution and best interest.” Using DEPs in a way that optimizes a platform’s own revenue may present a potential conflict of interest, Gensler emphasized. Gensler’s remarks follow a recent SEC request for information and public comments on the use of DEPs. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the SEC is seeking comments to better understand “what conflicts of interest may arise from optimization practices and whether those optimization practices affect the determination of whether DEPs are making a recommendation or providing investment advice.”

    Securities Data Analytics Risk Management SEC Fintech

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  • Hawaii enacts installment loan provisions

    Earlier this year, the Hawaii governor signed HB 1192, which amends certain provisions related to small dollar lending requirements. Specifically, the bill sets forth a new licensing requirement for “installment lenders” and specifies various consumer protection requirements. The bill defines installment lender broadly as “any person who is the business of offering or making a consumer loan, who arranges a consumer loan for a third party, or who acts as an agent for a third party, regardless of whether the third party is exempt from licensure under this chapter or whether approval, acceptance, or ratification by a third party is necessary to create a legal obligation for the third party, through any method including mail, telephone, the Internet, or any electronic means.” This language appears to capture loans offered under a bank partnership model under the purview of the new law.

    Further, the bill: (i) caps installment loan amounts at $1,500, and restricts the total amount of changes to no more than 50 percent of the principal loan amount; (ii) limits monthly maintenance fees to between $25 and $35 depending on the installment loan’s original principal amount; (iii) stipulates that the minimum repayment term is two months for installment loans of $500 or less, or four months for loans of $500.01 or more; (iv) states that lenders must “accept prepayment in full or in part from a consumer prior to the loan due date and shall not charge the consumer a fee or penalty if the consumer opts to prepay the loan; provided that to make a prepayment, all past due interest and fees shall be paid first; (v) prohibits a consumer’s repayment obligations to be secured by a lien on real or personal property; (vi) prohibits lenders from requiring consumers to purchase add-on products such as credit insurance; (vii) provides that the maximum contracted repayment term of an installment loan is 12 months; (viii) caps the annual interest rate on installment loans at 36 percent; and (ix) states that any installment loan made without a required license is void (the collection, receipt, or retention of any principal, interest, fees, or other charges associated with a voided loan is prohibited).

    The bill exempts certain financial institutions (e.g., banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, depository and nondepository financial services loan companies, credit unions) from the installment lender licensing requirements.

    The bill also repeals existing state law on deferred deposits. While HB 1192 became effective July 1, provisions related to the repeal of the existing law on deferred deposits and installment lender licensing requirements are effective January 1, 2022. License applications will be available via the Nationwide Multistate Licensing System.

    Licensing State Issues State Legislation Hawaii Small Dollar Lending Consumer Finance Installment Loans

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  • CA governor signs legislation on money transmission website requirements

    On October 4, the California governor signed AB 1320, which requires a licensee to supply a toll-free telephone number on its internet website so that a customer may contact the licensee for customer service issues and receive live customer assistance, in addition to displaying the days and times that the telephone line is operative. Among other things, the bill requires that a telephone number be included in the information contained in a receipt given to a customer at the time of a money transmission transaction. In addition, the bill specifies that the telephone line must be operative “at least 10 hours per day, Monday through Friday, excluding federal holidays.” The bill is effective July 1, 2022.

    Licensing State Issues California State Legislation Consumer Finance Money Service / Money Transmitters

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  • DFPI issues third round of draft regulations for commercial financing disclosures

    State Issues

    On October 12, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) issued a third draft of proposed regulations implementing the requirements of the commercial financing disclosures required by SB 1235 (Chapter 1011, Statutes of 2018). As previously covered by InfoBytes, in 2018, California enacted SB 1235, which requires non-bank lenders and other finance companies to provide written consumer-style disclosures for certain commercial transactions, including small business loans and merchant cash advances. In July 2019, California released the first draft of the proposed regulations, initiated the formal rulemaking process with the Office of Administrative Law in September 2020, and subsequently released a second round of modifications in August (covered by InfoBytes here, here, and here). The third modifications to the proposed regulations follow a consideration of public comments received on the various iterations of the proposed text. Among other things, the proposed modifications:

    • Amend several terms including “approved advance limit,” “approved credit limit,” “at the time of extending a specific commercial financing offer,” “benchmark rate,” “broker,” “provider,” and “recipient funds.”
    • Define the term “specific commercial financing offer” to mean a written communication to a recipient related to specific payment amounts and costs of financing, but does not include a recipient’s name, address, or general interest in financing.
    • Amend certain disclosure requirements and thresholds, including specific circumstances that a provider can disregard when making calculations and disclosures.
    • Clarify APR calculation requirements and tolerances and outline disclosure criteria for specifying the amount of financing used to pay down or pay off other amounts owed by a recipient.
    • Amend duties and requirements for financers and brokers.
    • Amend criteria for specifying the amount of funding a recipient will receive.

    Comments on the third modifications must be received by October 27.

    State Issues State Regulators DFPI California Disclosures Commercial Finance APR Consumer Finance

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