New York considers privacy legislation broader than the CCPA
On November 22, the New York Senate’s Committee on Consumer Protection and Committee on Internet and Technology held a joint hearing titled, “Consumer Data and Privacy on Online Platforms,” which discussed the proposed New York Privacy Act, SB S5642 (the Act). The Act was introduced in May and seeks to regulate the storage, use, disclosure, and sale of consumer personal data by entities that conduct business in New York State or produce products or services that are intentionally targeted to residents of New York State. The Act contains different provisions than the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which is set to take effect on January 1, 2020 (visit here for InfoBytes coverage on the CCPA). Highlights of the Act include:
- Fiduciary Duty. Most notably, the Act requires that legal entities “shall act in the best interests of the consumer, without regard to the interests of the entity, controller or data broker, in a manner expected by a reasonable consumer under the circumstances.” Specifically, the Act states that personal data of consumers “shall not be used, processed or transferred to a third party, unless the consumer provides express and documented consent.” The Act imposes a duty of care on every legal entity, or affiliate of a legal entity, with respect to securing consumer personal data against privacy risk and requires prompt disclosure of any unauthorized access. Moreover, the Act requires that legal entities enter into a contract with third parties imposing the same duty of care for consumer personal data prior disclosing, selling, or sharing the data with that party.
- Consumer Rights. The Act requires covered entities to provide consumers notice of their rights under the Act and provide consumers with the opportunity to opt-in or opt-out of the “processing of their personal data” using a method where the consumer must clearly select and indicate their consent or denial. Upon request, and without undue delay, covered entities are required to correct inaccurate personal data or delete personal data.
- Transparency. The Act requires covered entities to make a “clear, meaningful privacy notice” that is “in a form that is reasonably accessible to consumers,” which should include: the categories of personal data to be collected; the purpose for which the data is used and disclosed to third parties; the rights of the consumer under the Act; the categories of data shared with third parties; and the names of third parties with whom the entity shares data. If the entity sells personal data or processes data for direct marketing purposes, it must disclose the processing, as well as the manner in which a consumer may object to the processing.
- Enforcement. The Act defines violations as an unfair or deceptive act in trade or commerce, as well as, an unfair method of competition. The Act allows for the attorney general to bring an action for violations and also prescribes a private right of action on any harmed individual. Covered entities are subject to injunction and liable for damages and civil penalties.
According to reports, state lawmakers at the November hearing indicated that federal requirements would be “the best scenario,” but in the absence of Congressional movement in the area, one state senator noted that the state legislators must “assure [their] constituents that [the state legislature is] doing everything possible to protect their privacy.” Witnesses expressed concern that the Act would be placing too many new requirements on businesses that differ from what other states have already enacted, and encouraged more consistent baseline standards for compliance instead of a patchwork approach. Some witnesses expressed specific concern with the opt-in requirement for the collection and use of consumer data, noting that waiting on consumers to opt-in, as opposed to just opting-out, makes compliance difficult to administer. Lastly, many witnesses were displeased about the broad private right of action in the Act, but consumer groups praised the provision, noting that the state attorney general does not have the resources to regulate and enforce against all the data collection and sharing in the state.