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Financial Services Law Insights and Observations

DFPI concludes MTA licensure not required for direct purchase and sale of cryptocurrency

Licensing Digital Assets State Issues State Regulators DFPI California Money Transmission Act California Cryptocurrency Fintech

Recently, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) released a new opinion letter covering aspects of the California Money Transmission Act (MTA) related to the purchase and sale of virtual currency. The redacted opinion letter examines whether a Company that offers customers the opportunities to deposit fiat currency to a Company account and then draw down that balance to purchase virtual currency from the company requires MTA licensure. The Company explained that virtual currency is purchased from a third party and is transferred to the customer’s Company-issued virtual currency wallet where it can then be stored, transferred to an external wallet, or sold for fiat currency. When a customer later wants to sell the purchased virtual currency for fiat currency, the transaction occurs in a similar fashion. The Company stated that “virtual currency sales to customers are from the Company’s own inventory,” and that for purposes of the opinion, DFPI “assumes these sales occur independently of the Company’s own transactions with third parties.”

DFPI concluded that because the Company’s activities are limited to directly purchasing and selling cryptocurrency to customers, it does not require an MTA license because it does “not involve the sale or issuance of stored value or receiving money for transmission.” Specifically, DFPI stated that because the “customer’s fiat currency balance in the Company account does not meet the definition of stored value” and because “funds in that account can only be used for virtual currency purchases from the Company or transferred out to the customer’s external bank account,” the closed loop stored value “does not constitute issuance of stored value that is regulated under the MTA.” DFPI reminded the Company that its determination is limited to the presented facts and that any change could lead to different conclusions.

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